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Lecture 3

NSE11 Lecture 3: Chapter 10- Emotional Development

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Chapter 10: Emotional Development Emotional Intelligence > a set of abilities that contribute to competence in the social and emotional domains Being able to motivate oneself and persist in the face of frustration, control impulses and delay gratification, identify and understand ones own and others feelings, regulate ones moods, regulate the expression of emotion in social interactions and emphasize the others emotions Importance of emotional intelligence: predicts how well people do in life, especially in their social lives The Development of Emotions in Childhood Emotion > emotion is characterized by neural and physiological responses, subjective feelings, cognitions related to those feelings, and the desire to take action o Seeing emotions in terms of several components: Neural responses involved in emotion Physiological factors including heart and breath rate and hormone levels Subjective feelings The cognitions or perceptions that cause or are associated with the aforementioned neural and physiological responses and subjective feelings The desire to take action, including the desire to escape, approach or change people or things in the environment o Emotions can involve expressive behavior and cognitive interpretations of or reactions to the feeling state o Example > when people experience fear in response to a growling dog React with heightened physiological arousal, subjective feelings of fearfulness, thoughts about the ways in which the dog might hurt them and the motivation to get away from the dog May also begin calculating their chances of eluding the dog and finding them the chances slim Differential (or discrete) emotions theory: a theory about emotions, held by Tomkins, Izard and others in which emotions are viewed as innate and discrete from one another from very early in life, and each emotion is believed to be packaged with a specific and distinctive set of bodily and facial reactions According to Sroufe there are three basic affect systems o Joypleasure o Angerfrustration o Warinessfear > ex. Warinessfear is expressed as a startle or pain reaction, at a few months of age, infants start to show wariness of novel situations and a few months later show clear signs of fear in novel situations In Sroufes view, such changes are largely due to infants expanding social experiences and their increasing ability to understand them Functionalist approach > a theory of emotion, proposed by Campos and others that argues that the basic function of emotions is to promote action toward achieving a goal. In this view, emotions are not discrete from one another and vary somewhat based on the social environment o Ex. The emotion of fear causes one to flee or otherwise avoid a stimulus that represents a threat A dynamicsystems approach postulates that emotional reactions develop differently for each person, based on an individuals emotionrelated biology and cognitive capacities, his or her experiences, and how these factors tend to coalesce across time in an increasingly coherent and predictable manner The Emergence of Emotion in the Early Years and Childhood Positive Emotions The first clear sign of happiness that infants express is a smile During the 1st month, they exhibit fleeting smiles, primarily during the REM phase of sleep After the 1st month they sometimes smile when they are stroked gently These early smiles may be reflexive and seem to be evoked by some biological state rather than by social interaction Between the 3rd and 8th week of life, infants begin to smile in reaction to external stimuli, including touching, highpitched voices or other stimuli that engage their attention 3rd month of life and sometimes as early as 6 or 7 weeks of age babies begin to exhibit social smiles > smiles directed toward people Infants are at least 2 months of age > also show happiness in both social and nonsocial contexts in which they can control a particular event o Divided infants into two groups and attached a string to an arm of each infant
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