March 7 notes
Neoclassical and archaistic works
- The romans, 1 involvement in political affairs in Illyria in 230s. romans fought many wars vs
principle Hellenistic states and kingdoms. The Illyrian wars (229-168), Macedonian wars (214-
148), and roman-seleucid wars (192-188). Complete control was dated to about 30 BC.
- They become patrons of greek culture. Works from the classical period came to be looked upon
wwith awe and reverence.
- Cicero had a lot to say about this. He frequently wrote to titus pomponius atticus, and wrote
about acquiring art on his behalf. In his letters, can catch glimpse of his excitement for new
purchases, his eagerness for further finds, daydreams how they will look and impatience in
delay of arrivals. Through increased roman patronage of classical works, late Hellenistic greeks
came to look at old works, not just as cultural predecessors but also as super cultural figures,
works that was to be emulated. Romans caused a revival of the classical past. Big works were
analyzed and categorized, so see art history. Styles were paradigms to be studied and
- Refers to sculptors or developed, revived and imitated the forms or subjects about greek culture
in classical period. Development follows tripartite schematic, first be early or free neoclassism,
sculptors here wanted tndrecreate styles in their own work. (Aphrodite of melos)
- The mid point of the 2 c. BC another school developes, close imitations of greek models, called
neo-attic. Artists were copyist and sometimes modified them for a slightly decorative effect.
- The 3 phase was a group specialized in variations of classical prototypes. Works were close
anough to be seen as quotations but different enough to stand alone. Often called the adaptors.
- Early or free neoclassism
o The best appreciated sculptor is damophon, fl. 200-150BC. Pausanias says damophon
was active in the 1 half of the 2 c. BC. Was also responsible for repairs on phedias
zeus at Olympia. Were told damophon was a good choice for repairs because he worked
in the neo-classical style. we don’t know if this led to him emulating phedias, or was
doing it before. Like phedias, he specialized in cult images, sometimes colossal. The
largest number of his works that survived come from teple of desponia, lykosoura.
Discovered around 1889. Most important of the remains is 3 large heads: anytus (titan),
artmeis, and demeter. Maybe desponia.
▪ The works do share similarities. All neoclassical because the head has
smoothness, faces are large with simple features. Looking at demeter, her
round head and large eyes, narrow mouth, similar to the figures from the ionic
frieze on the Parthenon. (phedias supervised it)
▪ The hairstyle and rounded lips of the artemis figure, similar to works given to
praxtiles, like aphrodite of Knidos. Also artemis brauronia. Maybe similar to zeus
▪ Clear that damophon was an expert at showing the style of two of the greatest
o Style flourish in pelops too, practiced in Pergamum also. Have to keep in mind that the
attalids view Pergamum as cultural successor to Athens, so its normal this style thrived
at Pergamum. Pergameme culture was revivalist.
o From a group of statue bases, original works like Myron who made the discobulos, and
praxtiles were set up on the pergameme acropolis. Some Pergamum works relate to
classical Athens, Parthenon. See the north frieze on the great altar of zeus. Females have affinities similar to classical Athens. See smooth face, small mouth, ageless and
stoic, head is round.
o At Pergamum, its best embodied by a tall marble statue of Athena Parthenos. 3.105
meters tall. Two key attributes: aegis (medusa head), and the helmet. Think this statue
was set up in time of eumenes II, during the time the great library of Pergamum was
expanded. Think it was erected in the main reading room. Were not really working at a
copy of phedias`s Athena Parthenos, were more or less looking at a free hand recreation
of that sculpture. Its clear it is supposed to be a descendant of that statue, the base
reproduced the figures from the story of Pandora. This one had its own character, based
on comparisons between it and other copies of the original.
▪ Pergameme elements: longer, narrower profile, face. The drapery is more
similar in form to other pergameme monuments. The helmet is almost identical
to others on the acropolis.
▪ Classical features: the use of sharp edges to delineate facial features, the hair is
rendered in similar fashion to 5 c. works.
▪ So it has both elements, it’s a fusion of the two.
o Best known example for neoclassical work, the Aphrodite of melos. Or commonly
known as venus de milo.
▪ A marble sculpture, slightly larger than life size, 2.03 meters. Most scholars give
this to Alexandros of Antioch from an incomplete inscription. He is an unknown
artist. Dated to about 150-125 BC, found on island of melos in a gymnasium.
▪ Has a small mouth, smooth brow, marked distinct nose bridge is classical.
▪ She stands with weight on right leg, and the left foot was slightly elevated, the
walking stance of the late classical period.
▪ The po