April 4 notes
Funerary architecture: tombs of the kings, Cyprus
- Close to site of paphos. In terms of Hellenistic history: Cyprus was a contested island, because of
all its natural resources. Two primary: timber and copper. Same time, it also had a strategic
importance on east-west trade routes. Often referred to having a position between the
orient(east) and occident (wes). Since late bronze age, populate dby a number of city states, had
greeks, Phoenicians and others. Usually under the rule of some major power, hittites, Persians,
Macedonian kings etc. for the Hellenistic period, the kings on the island sided with alexander to
go into Persia, around 332 BC. Following his death, they sided with Ptolemy I, antigonus or
demetrius poliorcete, but it was Ptolemaic rule from 294-58BC then under rome. Paphos was
- The tombs of the kings, a series of rock cut, subterranean tombs, from 4 century BC- 3 c.AD rd
- Thought to be burial sites for elite class and higher officials. These rock cut tombs fall under
peristyle tombs because they had an inner courtyard lined by a colonnade, rooms open up to
the court yard. So it’s a reflection of a house, they are essentially house tombs. They haven’t
also been very published. We are looking at tomb 4. Have a doric colonnade supporting an
architrave with metopes etc. all of it carved from the living rock.
- Giving the architectural features are cut out of bed rock, the construction would have been very
time consuming and as a consequence extremely expensive. Behind the porticos, have a series
of rock cut chambers, with niches cut into the side, called loculi, little spaces for sarcophagus.
Can assume its tombs of elite families then.
- Interesting: they recall almost in identical fashion of funerary monuments of Hellenistic
Alexandria. (under control of ptolemies). Paphos elites choose to do the same as the elites in the
capital of the ptolemies.
the neocropoleis of Alexandria
- Almost 1 million people, means many cemeteries. At the same time, Alexandria was always
expanding, so new cemeteries built too. They are always outside, so as the city moves closer,
the cemeteries need to be moved. So we found several cemeteries form this period.
- East: cemeteries of shatbi, hadra, ibrahimiya, sidi gaber, Mustafa pasha
- West: gabbari, wardi-en-mafrusa. Mex.
- The Macedonians who came to the nile delta were buried to their customs, however the local
climate,pheronic traditions, soon led to modification of Alexandria.
- The shatbi tombs one of the earliest. First one dated to the first generation in the history of
o Discovered in 19 c. to the ast.
o The original plan came to be altered over the years with new sections.
o Tomb A: courtyard, pseudo peristyle, 6.75 x 8.2. also has a vestibule.
o The walls have engaged orders, the northern wall is 6 partly fluted doric half columns
with a central doorway. In the upper section between the columns is a series of false
windows. Each window is divided into two sections, the right hand panel was painted
skyblue and set back. windows are trying to depict the sky, artist trying to creat the
effect of a vista, meant to seem looking outside. The entrance to the chamber
represents the same concept, wall is decorated with a small tetra-style ionic façade,
supports low pediment. See similar to virginae.
o Façade: engaged ionic columns, windows, one painted sky blue. As we go through time,
loculi were carved into the walls, and through time addition rock cut rooms with own
loculi added. Ultimately, what ends up happening, becomes a public cemetery.
- Mustafa pasha, tomb 1, ca 250 BC. o Its date is given on basis of style of painting within it. is closely related but later in time
to those rock cut tombs in paphos. This one is carved out of the rock, accessed on west
side by stair cas.e the stairs then directs traffic into peristyle courtyard.
o Opening on each 4 sides have doric, half columns, façade too, support doric entablature,
triglyphs and metopes. Above the doorway, have a painted panel, a depiction of three
horsemen and two standing female figures.
o The doors are similar to Egyptian tombs and palaces, and behind this, extensive
vestibule, see loculi on both sides. See Macedonian burial chambers. Do have Corinthian
pilasters, and a plain pediment. It provides one of the earliest examples of such an
arrangement. See loculi added over time.
o Tomb 3: late 3 c. BC. Has the peristyle, the odd thing: a semi-circular exedra, we think
it was used for funerary rites. That actual form, we think may have been inspire by the
cavea (of theatre), the seated area. At opposite end of the court, have a main burial
chamber and before is a square room with an altar. Right before this square room, part
of the courtyard was raised,
▪ At the back wall of that step up, we have an architectural façade, has 4 doric
half columns, and two quarter columns in the corners. Backdrop had internal
doors. Would be lavishly painted, but we are presented with a strange form.
Resembles a theatre, the architectural façade resembles a skene-building, which
is a structure at the back of theatres. They served as the backdrops to the plays.
So here, we have a skene-building consisted th