COMM 226 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Cardinality, File Descriptor
Database & Content Management
1) What is content?
Content: a form of creative endeavour that can be protected through a trademark,
patent, copyright, industrial design, or integrated circuit topography. It varies by
- All data stored by an organization.
- Considered to be intellectual property.
What is the challenge about managing content?
Recently, because of increases in volume (amount of data stored), and increases in the number of
formats it is presented in (pictures, files, videos). Thus difficulties related to content management
‒Collecting, Distributing and Presenting it.
‒Doing all of the above for internal users (employees) & external users (customers etc.)
2) How can content be organized?
Content management has 2 main tasks:
Managing the content (using database management systems):
- Indexing & cataloguing the right data
- Processing & storing the data
Presenting the content (using Web Content Management Systems)
- Getting the content to the right person in the right format at the right time.
Main challenges of content management:
- Processing and storing the right content
- Getting the right content to the right person in the right format at the right time
3) What is the purpose of a database?
Purpose of a database : Keep track of data involving multiple themes while
spreadsheets –which are used by many professionals – only keep lists of single
They are usually stored electronically to facilitate:
Computer-assisted search and retrieval
Access for multiple users to view the data they need. ‒
Hierarchy of data elements:
Data terminology Storage in a database
Character = Byte
Field = Column
Record = Row
File = Table
4) What does a database contain?
Database: Self-describing collection of integrated records
Hierarchy of data elements
•Byte is a character of data
•Bytes are grouped into columns/fields
•Columns grouped into rows/records
•Rows are grouped into tables/files
Components: the structure of the database is a collection of tables (files) plus relationships
among the rows in those tables plus metadata.
•Tables or Files: Values in one table may relate to rows in other table(s).
- Keys: Column(s) that identify unique row in table. Every table has one.
•Relationships among the records (rows of different tables)
- Key: one or more data fields in a table that is unique for only one record.
- Foreign Key: keys in a different table than the one in which they reside.
- Relational database : databases using tables, keys, and foreign keys.
•Metadata (data dictionary)
- Data that describes data.
- Makes database more useful than a spreadsheet.
- Makes database easier to use.