Class Notes (838,986)
Canada (511,152)
History (81)
HIST 202 (2)

part 2.docx

49 Pages
Unlock Document

HIST 202
Sherry J.F.Rowley

World War I – 65 mill. Soldiers, 37 mill. Casualties 4/2/2013 8:15:00 AM - You really couldn‟t ignore what was happening. Casualty rates were worse than anybody expected. - European‟s superiority was put into question. How could they treat each other like that and be at the head of the world. - Places change, 4 empires collapse, families changes, atheist movement‟s rise. - this number does not even include the 20-40 million people who die of the flu epidemic in 1918. - What they‟ve really done has changed the nature of the European story. Rivalries in Europe - France and Germany; Britain and Germany; Austria and Russia;  France goes back to the Franco-Prussian war  Tension between France and Germany has been there, it makes for some very strange bed fellows  People are playing a power politics game  Britain and Germany; this shouldn‟t be a problem because they share relatives in the monarchy  Comes down to the German emperor, he offended everybody  The English felt he was pushy and aggressive  Edward VII, was a man who loved to live life to his fullest, and the emperor of Germany couldn‟t stand him  The German naval buildup happened to shove it in Edwards face, to annoy him  So instead of a conflict between a royal family it becomes a conflict between different types of government  So any kind of military buildup comes to be seen as a treat to the other  There is also a very deep rivalry between Austria and Russia  Turkey has been in decline for a while and it still controls areas that are important to these other powers o The Mediterranean is wanted by the Russians, but the Austrians do not want them to have it  The Serbs will ask the Russians for help  Nobody is really thinking that a conflict could be really big  Most of the wars that had happened were big wars that lasted not that long  They felt secure in society - Alliance system:1882 Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy) vs. 1905 Triple Entente (Britain, France and Russia)  The Triple Alliance was basically to isolate France  Germany stops floating Russian debt  the Franco-Russian alliance is about money and the Russians will float billions of dollars of bonds on the French  Britain doesn‟t want to fight on the continent  The Belgians are related to the British and there is a deep sense of alliance there  You didn‟t get attention of your allies unless you were attacked by two powers consecutively  1914 was not a year that they thought there was going to be a war  You don‟t have a lot of voices in European society saying this is a bad thing  For two decades newspapers have tracked Europeans as they colonized the world, they believed they were the best in the world, this spread to all of society - Virulent Nationalism spreads to all ranks of society  This leads to nationalism  Everyone believes very strongly that they are the best place in Europe - Balkan Issue: Serb nationalism and pan-Slavism; decline of the ottoman Empire draws attention to Russia and other powers  The Serbs have very aggressive intentions towards their neighbors  The Russians had backed the Serbs every time they got into problems with their neighbors…so they felt that no matter what they could depend on their bog brother  Orthodoxy has a lot to do with being Slavic…anywhere that speaks a Slavic language and are orthodox were part of a greater slavdom  Every last place on earth needs Europeans there o So of course they look towards the ottoman empire o Very difficult to define borders so everyone gets involved The Spark - Desire for war: popular culture (ex: „future war‟ novels); Social Darwinism makes conflicts between nations seem natural; role of military planners (Schlieffen Plan vs. Plan XVII)  science tells people that certain groups are better than others, studies are happening to prove this  they choose these measurements based on the European norm and however far you were from the norm said how inferior you were  for example: Rowley‟s mom would say that she had so many brains for such a small head  societies would fight with one another because of superiority  our society is under siege  must prove fitness on the battlefield  poor people and criminals are inferior  military planners o no one had this before o they were mapping out future conflicts trying to figure out how to beat one another o once you have a plan and write it down you want to do it o playing risk  Schlieffen Plan o They wanted to battle France and then do Russia because they couldn‟t get there in time  Plan XVII o They thought a conflict was on the horizon as well  Neither of these plans work so they change these plans up - Assassination of Archduke Franz-Ferdinand seen by the Austrians as a chance to crush Serbia  no one was really upset that Franz-Ferdinand was killed…but it started a conflict because they had no ruler  in the wake of him being killed the Austrians feel that they have a chance to crush Serbia  they gave them an ultimatum that is over the top  they want the assassin handed over, they want the Serbs to stop making anti-Austrian announcements  The Serbs are busy looking for allies at this point, everyone waffled to give a politically correct answer on the subject rather than saying no which is what they thought  It is when the Russians move for a partial mobilization that cause the other countries start to move too - July 1914 ultimatum - War declared within a month; domino effect New Kind of Warfare - Knockout blow fails; end of offensive warfare by September 1914  people realized very quickly that this was not going to be a quick war  the Russians mobilized a lot more quickly than the rets of Europe expected  needed a knockout blow for the war to end - Trench warfare – 6250 miles of trenches in France; psychological effect  fought in waves, in a wasteful way  Trenches o Many of these men are in trenches for months on end o Rats, dark, dead people everywhere, feces everywhere  Growing up men read about heroic war, nice outfits o This is not what they got o How did they pass their time, they were bored, cold, wet majority of the time  The soul break in the monotony was being told to run towards the machine guns  This is a dehumanizing of soldiers; brown and grey and beige colors - Conscription armies and machine guns  not enough people are volunteering at first  conscription is completely new  your army is numberless now, you have an endless supply of men - Combat influenced by new technologies including gas, grenades, tanks, flamethrowers, airplanes, dirigibles  machine guns…mow down anyone who is running towards you o gets rid of the cavalry  tanks do not exist yet  have bodies trying to take on new technologies  barbed wire made it almost impossible for people to do offensive style warfare  artillery o rushed up reserves through trains o Europe stopped looking pastoral o The battle of albert  This is not one of the big ones  If it is generating a lot of shell use, then imagine the big ones  Poison gas o One thing that the soldiers really feared because they didn‟t know what to expect o The gas masks leaked, and gas could pocket in the trenches or crevices o Gas is really unpredictable, you need the wind against your direction  Grenades o Throw and don‟t have to see the devastation or the threat  Tanks o The first tanks must have scared people  Flamethrowers o No one killed by a flamethrower had a heroic death  Airplanes o There seems to be a treat all of the time  However most of the time people are doing nothing, just worrying  Civilians could now be targeted o It becomes okay to bomb civilians o If you terrify civilians they would put pressure on their government to surrender  There is a change in the attitude towards workers because they were making the stuff to fight with o So people wanted to bomb the factories, but they missed most of the time, and so they looked like they were going after regular people for no reason - decimation of landscape – 60, 000 square miles of France destroyed  from June to December everything was gone o bombs continue to kill after everything was gone because there are bombs in the ground that have not gone off yet o bomb squads are still called today because a random WWI bomb has gone off in a French field The Home Front - Growing state control – over labor; conscription; rationing  growing power of the modern state  state takes on new powers that it had never had before  state controls labor o concessions, labor, prices, etc o trying to shift workers onto a more militarized living  a duty to fight o an expectation of reciprocity o they expected the state to take care of the families left behind o men at the front saw their families get a payment for their fighting o and expectation that if citizenship has a duty then the state has a duty to the citizen  people start to resent people who get around the system - Mobilizing the mass media  need the media to demonize the other  no one said the Russians or Germans, they had a slur instead  idea that you were fighting a moral crusade against the enemy  people at home had to believe that the men were heroic  countries continue to sell the heroic to keep people working and together at home  given false stories about how your family members died so that society wouldn‟t fall apart - women as nurses and factory workers  product still needed to be produced  debates about what women were capable of doing as a job were put aside and these jobs opened up and women became significant  as men are away from home longer there is a lot more independence that kicks in  clothes became much more like men to do factory work  hair became shorter which was really disturbing to many men  their wives had become factory workers with short hair who were independent  divorce rates sky rocketed after WWI o spousal abuse went up  the men don‟t have an ability to adapt to these changes  women do not want to go back  women‟s roles of nursing got a lot of good publicity o they cared for the broken bodies of men  it is a struggle to decide what roles women should have in the economy - divisions between soldiers and those on the home front; divisions between types of soldiers - views of desertion and those with shell shock  stress was a new thing to deal with  could not blame it on the war because that would mean that the war was wrong  they said that the men were weak or broken because they cracked under pressure  they looked for all kinds of biological solution o some places were nice and gave them baths, others did electroshock therapy or cold baths  the thought was that if they changed the body then the person would come back  hundreds of thousands of men had shell shock, some never spoke again and were in institutions for the rest of their lives  there were vets who came home and had to deal with this o men lashed out in their sleep o often developed drinking problems to sleep better o the code of men was to not talk to their wives or anyone about how they felt  By 1916 desertion is a serious problem o ¼ of units in France were politically unreliable o you were shot if you deserted or did not listen to an order o a lot of men left and had to assume a new identity  hundreds of thousands of men did this because the situation was that bad o in Russia these men took their guns with them and started a revolution WWI and the US - Us enters the war in 1917  they are part of the European discussion from here on out  they did not see the American encroachment as the financial world leaders - Wilson‟s 14 points (Jan 8/1918) – “Making the world safe for democracy.” - Us becomes leading economic power in the world. Europeans owe 4/2/2013 8:15:00 AM Russia at the start of the 20 thcentury - politics – divine right monarchy  Nicolas II was meant to be god‟s representative on earth, you have no right to challenge his opinion, a minister holds a position because he has been given it by the emperor  He doesn‟t enjoy paperwork  He enjoys sport and spending time with his family  He is not a strong willed man, he does delegate though  The people that he delegates too can be removed from favor  He was not a brilliant man, and so he does not like to surround himself with smart people  He sought out people according to how loyal they were to the throne  He s extremely reluctant to give up any kind of power  Giving up some of his power is completely against what he believes in  When he makes concessions he has no intentions to contend to them, he will claw them back as much as possible - Russia is a really big place, it has 11 time zones, there is no railway running through the country yet, it makes it hard to get from one side to the other - Professionalization and middle class  a very small middle class is starting to percolate; doctors, professors, etc.  this is another form of nationalism that forms for these people  how do you meld a Devine right monarchy to industrialization  middle class professionals do not get more rights like many other industrialized countries - working class – heavy concentration in large factories  Marxism – he was not talking about Russia at all…very perplexed about this  It is only the last years of his life that he thought about Russia in that way…because he had fans from there  The Russians found an interesting way of lying with statistics o Growth rates  Russia‟s working class was growing faster than any other working class in Europe  They think they will be able to take over Europe o These people had a lot of influence o Where they work and where the factories are will affect them politically  Russia doesn‟t really industrialize until the 2d industrial revolution  The government wanted to be able to watch over the factories so they put large factories with about 5 thousand people in a factory  And they were all next door to each other o So this is bad when it comes to discontent o People can get others to protest much easier o Massive strikes – hundreds of thousands of workers o General strikes that shut down the entire economy o They put all the pissed off people together o Peer pressure pulls into this, propaganda works well and easily in these places o This is incredibly significant – they cripple the Russian economy in 1905  They were going on strike because their working conditions were terrible o 57.5 hours a week o children under the age of 12 did not have to go over 40 hours o they were not paid particularly well o many lived in factory houses, depending on their employers for food, water, etc.  their time was supervised o enforced church attendance – workers wanted their Sunday‟s off – they wanted to go to a village fist fight o people start complaining that they were people and that they should not be treated like this o advanced metal workers were the only ones who could afford to have their own living arrangements o people who could afford to get out of the factory houses often shared a place with 40 different people o infant mortality rate was up of 50% o there was no work insurance, if they got injured they hoped they could go home to their home village  they have nothing to lose o what is the state doing for them o does the emperor even know about their condition o SR launch a terrorist campaign o A lot of violence in the background here o Peasants are not leading the charge here  But they also don‟t have a lot to lose - peasantry – serfdom ends 1860‟s; village commune; antiquated farming methods  peasants got only a certain percentage of the land and had to pay over 49 years when the serfs were freed  they were giving money to parasites, to people who lived in houses and did nothing  peasants worked a lot of hours o they had so many children that the plots were divided up way too much, so they had to send people to the town to do other work o the land is insufficient for the number of people that want to farm it  Russia has horrendous farming techniques at that point o Farming strips  Spent a lot of time walking from one strip to another  They have field after field with bumpy speed bumps over it  3 year rotation – so you didn‟t get to keep your land so why work hard on it you also don‟t get to decide what to plant o this system hampers modernization  bring in stolypin o to undertake agricultural reform o strip consolidation  there is not enough time to change everything in 7 years o it was working, just not enough time o they were heading in the right direction o they ran into WWI  all kinds of reforms get pushed to the side - 1905 revolution and October manifesto – troops stay local; creation of Duma; emergence of soviets  the country is fighting a war at this point  they had the power to really cripple the entire economy  A group of workers go to petition the emperor o They want an 8 hour workday, they want better wages, etc. o They notify the police in advance o Couple hundred thousand people marching down St. Petersburg o Police are stationed along the way o Someone stresses and hundreds of people were killed o That send shock waves through the country o The demonstrators didn‟t even know that he wasn‟t living in the castle they were moving towards  People believed that the emperor loved them and that the advisors were the bad guys o This changed, they felt that they did nothing wrong, they just wanted to hand the emperor a piece of paper  The revolutionaries called off the truce they had with the regime  Some of the units of the Russo-Japanese war are not listening and they figure that the troops are not loyal enough for a military dictatorship  ***so, Nicolas has to give some concessions o the October manifesto  middle class decides they can give it a try o there were far fewer concessions than people thought they could get  from 1905-1914 there is a parliament o could question ministers if they would go to the dumas building o they don‟t have control over finances o they can shriek, they are immune from anything they say in the dumas building, whatever they wanted, and then this was reported in the newspapers o the first 2 dumas do not last very long o none of them lasted very long  Nicolas didn‟t want anything to do with the Dumas rd  By the time you got to the elections of the 3 Dumas, one aristocrats vote was worth 20 thousand peasants vote  And even though they didn‟t get a dumas that they really wanted  You don‟t have an emperor who wants to give up anything  The regime got lucky in 1905 o Cossack  HOPE is the worst thing you can give to someone o It causes the revolution to die down and save the regime  The soviets provide workers with the experience of working together and… - Witte - in 1906 – the regime survives WHAT IS THE REVOLUTION TRIGGER!!!  WWI brings back all of those class divisions  Shows the extent to which the regime is mismanaged  The people in charge do not look like they know what they are doing World War I - Nicolas orders a partial mobilization because he wasn‟t ready for a full one - Initial patriotism gives way to despair  conscription o 12 million men are hauled into the Army  they had no clue what they were fighting for  they had never been anywhere before  they never get passed that gap in knowledge  many of them rioted, going after drugstores, restaurants, and bars  that is what you see when you get outside of the capital cities, and this is only a month into the war - Shortages and Refugees - prohibition  Nicolas brings this in, because alcohol consumption had lead to losses  He was surrounded by people who were involved in the temperance movement  There is a problem with this logic  He doesn‟t take the next step  The reality was that Russia was heavily dependent on tax‟s and alcohol sales to finance their budget o 20% of tax‟s came from alcohol  by 1915, they are in huge financial problems o the government has no money to buy rifles anymore  this is a good example of the kind of bad decisions that Nicolas makes - Russians also don‟t fight very well  the Germans push hundreds of miles into Russia o and so a ¼ of industry is in foreign lands o people that live in that area start walking  10 million refugees  there is nothing for these people, they are not wanted  you don‟t see social cohesion is Russia during this war  moral is in the tank by the middle of 1915 o draconian labor laws  women flock to the factories in vast numbers but they are not paid a lot  industry by 1915 is cracking  there are not enough shoes, boots, artillery, shells, o only four shells can be fired a day  by 1915 the Austrians are moving inwards too - Tsar goes to the front  he puts his uncle out of the way, a man people like  he makes the decisions now and so everything is blamed on him  who is running the government now o his wife  she was not a visible public figure  she was awkward, she didn‟t know what to say  sciatica – stays forever with her  she used a wheelchair  she could barely stand  they don‟t know who they are but they also don‟t know about these crises  they had 4 daughters in quick succession  they have a son who has hemophilia o they don‟t tell people, they retreat into domestic life o she goes to faith healers  she goes to Rasputin  it works for some reason  she rewards him  the government ministers start revolving around Rasputin‟s likes  start to have rumors circulating that that she is a German princes that is a traitor - desertion  in 1916 hundreds of thousands of men start going home and taking their guns with them 1917 - Bread strike  women get angry  riots with men and women  Nicolas says just put them down  They go to the military and plea  They open the doors to the cabinets and start handing out guns  Cossacks ride right down and do not put the riot down - NOBODY WANTS THE THROWN!! - Provisional government and its rivalry with Petrograd soviet - Lenin‟s April Theses (“Bread, Peace, Land” and “All power to the soviets”) - Kerensky offensive - July Days - Kornilov Affair and Bolshevik Seizure of Power 4/2/2013 8:15:00 AM World War I and the United States  Official entry into the war in April 1917  Woodrow Wilson‟s 14 points (January 8/1918) o “making the world safe for democracy”  no secret treaties, boundaries set by people within them  league of nations o Woodrow wanted to stay out of the war…however he realized that he couldn‟t o He realized that he could make the world better if could make people talk about things o His plan was widely publicized  Us becomes leading economic power in the world  Flu epidemic – averaged 66, 000 deaths per day for the worst part o 40 million people die of flu  Have political leaders who try to create a solution for all the nagging problems in Europe…but they end up causing more problems The Peace Process  People at top – prime minister, president of US the French… and sometimes the head of Italy  French are determined to punish the Germans  Blame the Germans – size of reparations‟ military restrictions; effect of Germany o This is a clause that causes a lot of difficulties in Germany o That war guilt clause sticks in their throat  It is one of the reasons they try to get rid of the Versailles settlement o They have tried to decapitate the entire German military o Germany is going to be made to pay financially for the war  100 billion…  and the French will occupy Germany until they are paid o They lost territory o They create major inflation o What you have instead is a world where people who accept this treaty are thrown under the bus  League of Nations not viable o The Americans opt out by not signing the agreement o The Russians are not invited to sign the agreement o The league has not military force  No way to stop bad behaviors of others o It does not have the teeth that the united nations have after WWII o There is no racial equality clause  Why it is that questions of race and ethnicity have so many questions around this time o You can‟t find a border that will satisfy everyone o The map gets a lot more complicated in the 20‟s when there places break up o Some of the countries that they are going to create through the treaty of Versailles do not have a diversified economy  They are also very small economy‟s…they will not weather the storm well  They also have to invent their ruling system from scratch o  Borders in Eastern Europe – no traditions of democracy; fear spread of Russian Revolution Societal change - Visible reminders of the war – new landscapes (cemetaries; monuments) & the disabled  - a flawed peace process that penalizes some people  - people want to rearrange their borders  - the land is terrible  - societal changes – visible reminders of the war o huge drives to memorialize the dead Women in the public sphere – ex: the divorce ate doubles in Germany  - women did not go back to the home o style, behavior o they did not want to go back to the old world o no desire to return to less comfortable clothing  - more people are drinking and dancing more heavily  - society has fundamentally changed  - soviet union gave women the right to vote and the right to abortion  this is going to inspire women activists in the 20‟s and fight for more rights elsewhere  - men that came home were not given much security - Labor militancy & red scares; strikes  - Emergence of communist parties - Artistic experimentation – European sense of superiority seems naïve; “lost generation”; stream of consciousness; film experimentation  avant-garde  different kinds of dance, music, literature  people who wanted escapism needed to get it by looking at new things  people will want to create a traditional world Economic woes  Governments print money to pay their war debts o Inflations and savings o Not at hyperinflation o Inflation erodes the economic well being of some groups  Working groups and middle class  People who have put away money in savings for the future  All the banked money became worthless  Pensions disappeared  Long-term unemployment – by 1932, 24 million plus unemployed worldwide; by 1932, 2 of 5 German workers unemployed; others on short hours o People out of work for years at a time o Affects new segments of society as well o Unemployment is going to trickle into groups of people who have never experienced it before  Accountants, lawyers, bakes, readers, writers, scientists o Also unemployed in a world with no safety net o Nazism takes hold in Germany because of the unemployed rate o  Limit employment of women – preference given to unemployed men  Inter-connectedness of economics = ripple effect More Economic Woes  Speculation in financial markets – October 1929 NY stock market crashes  State of economic knowledge at time o Very limited o Very few people and programs to teach people about this o People are not studying this as a discipline yet o  Banks call in loans – other banks collapse, particularly in Germany Us Loans to Europe  Many short-term and subject to recall on limited notice  1924 c. 520 billion  1925 c. 610 billion  1926 c. 490 billion  1927 c. 580 billion  1928 c. 590 billion  1929 c. 140 billion o banks had been borrowing from other banks o banking is now an international thing The Pain goes on…  1931 Europeans go off gold standard (fight idea at first); also cut government spending o the value of money goes down and so debt goes down  Tariffs (economic nationalism) leads to decline in exports o Begin to see countries slapping tariffs on exports and it triggers and enormous collapse on trade  The banks are collapsing everywhere Decline in Exports (1929-1932)  Only country that looks okay is USSR but that is only because they start from such a poor place Solutions  Keynes advocates deficit spending o Worked in Nazi Germany  German recovery – end of reparations & rearmament under Hitler; remove women from workplace (ex: 1933 marriage loans) o Takes Hitler to be elected to bring Germany back o By 1935 it is clear that Germany has weathered the worst of the depression  Attraction of Soviet path – capitalism appears to be failing o Stall in Russia The Search for Scapegoat  Statistics movement – who wants numbers and why?  Francis Galton coins term “eugenics” in 1883 – the “science” of improving human stock by giving “the most suitable races or strains of blood [i.e. classes] a better chance of prevailing speedily over the less suitable.” o Eugenics becomes a world wide phenomenon o What they see as inferiority in human beings o These groups are widespread to the point that they can hold conferences all over the world o  Eugenics as popular culture – 1912 1 International Eugenics Conference held in London (chaired by Balfour; sponsors included Lord Chief Justice & Winston Churchill) Quotations from Winston Churchill  “The unnatural and increasingly rapid growth of the feeble-minded and insane classes, coupled as it is with the steady restriction among all the thrifty, energetic and superior stocks, constitutes a national and race danger which it is impossible… Search fro Scapegoats  Ranks people by groups [criminals and paupers; poor and low-paid; „respectable‟ working class; skilled workers, foremen, clerks, small tradesmen; independent professionals and large employers  Led to immigration laws that target certain groups  Forced sterilizations – countries involved included Canada, Norway, Finland, Estonia and Iceland o People who are deemed feeble-minded  Between 1910-1935, more than 100, 000 people were sterilized in the Us for “feeble-mindedness”. Fascist Italy and Stalinist Russia 4/2/2013 8:15:00 AM Characteristics of a Fascist Society  More than 40 countries have a fascist party  Societies based on service to the nation  Look to dictatorial rule to counter fear from “left”; importance of charismatic ruler  Take root in places with weak traditions of democracy; advocate strong nationalist and militarized country  Country has special destiny; national community to overcome class differences  Promise to restore “social order”  Pro-natal campaigns; foreground family  Target frustrated war veterans  Scapegoat Jews and communists - the literature, films, speeches are meant to play on peoples emotions, not to make sense. - the leaders promised a return of a mythic idea of the past  weren‟t things great before the war…women at home, great militaries, etc.  narrative about morality  racial overtones…identifying people who are not part of the social order…need to take this group out of society to get jobs back - Quote from Hitler – Motherhood was woman‟s supreme function, they can make no greater contribution to the nation then to have children  this sounds great to men who came back from the war to find their wives different, this is great - Identify Tangible others  Claudia Coones o Tried to understand how did average everyday humans come to change their thought process o How did they go from being a person to being a thing that can depersonalize their neighbors o Process of providing scapegoats o If you manipulate long enough, people are willing to turn a blind eye…but this has to be done in small steps o Communists parties  Social classes have commonalities  If you allow that kind of thinking you undermine any kind of fascist structure Nazi Germany  Weakening of political center  Consolidation of power: 1) Reichstag Fire; 2) March 1933 parliamentary elections – results ignored & Nazi‟s given „emergency powers‟; 3)ban other political parties; 4) destroy trade unions; 5) recruit new members; 6) army oath of allegiance o Reichstag Fire  Blamed on communists – plot to burn down the parliament  Public opinion shifts against communism o Emergency powers  They are to deal with terrorist threats  Those allow them to arrest and try people without normal legal due process, it suspended the law  They did not need to produce evidence or public trials, they have no way of appealing those sentences o Attack power of other political parties  People can be fired from their jobs for political unreliability  Anything that you want to make it  If they are members of the wrong party o By the end of 1934  Majority of communist party members are arrested, fired, deported o Trade unions  Shut down, cannot oppose anything the Nazi part wants o Nazi Party  Swells well over 2 million  A realization that joining the party makes sense career wise…they don‟t really care about the ideologies o Start to see people joining organizations, not realizing the greater significance and ideology that these organizations represent  Slowing the party turned them into real Nazi‟s  Control of society: education; social organizations; ideological clampdown; mobilization of propaganda and culture o Do it through public organizations, things that people are going to join without thinking o The army was Hitler‟s only challenge  Make them take a new oath of allegiance to Hitler himself  Oaths mattered, you don‟t just take them willy nilly  Anyone who would not take that oath was an opponent and they could be neutralized o The Nazi‟s now have no opponents o They made Nazi activities more fun  Nazi Youth Groups  Given guns and told to go play  Young boys preferred to do that
More Less

Related notes for HIST 202

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.