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HIST 202 (2)
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Department
History
Course
HIST 202
Professor
Sherry J.F.Rowley
Semester
Winter

Description
World War I – 65 mill. Soldiers, 37 mill. Casualties 4/2/2013 8:15:00 AM - You really couldn‟t ignore what was happening. Casualty rates were worse than anybody expected. - European‟s superiority was put into question. How could they treat each other like that and be at the head of the world. - Places change, 4 empires collapse, families changes, atheist movement‟s rise. - this number does not even include the 20-40 million people who die of the flu epidemic in 1918. - What they‟ve really done has changed the nature of the European story. Rivalries in Europe - France and Germany; Britain and Germany; Austria and Russia;  France goes back to the Franco-Prussian war  Tension between France and Germany has been there, it makes for some very strange bed fellows  People are playing a power politics game  Britain and Germany; this shouldn‟t be a problem because they share relatives in the monarchy  Comes down to the German emperor, he offended everybody  The English felt he was pushy and aggressive  Edward VII, was a man who loved to live life to his fullest, and the emperor of Germany couldn‟t stand him  The German naval buildup happened to shove it in Edwards face, to annoy him  So instead of a conflict between a royal family it becomes a conflict between different types of government  So any kind of military buildup comes to be seen as a treat to the other  There is also a very deep rivalry between Austria and Russia  Turkey has been in decline for a while and it still controls areas that are important to these other powers o The Mediterranean is wanted by the Russians, but the Austrians do not want them to have it  The Serbs will ask the Russians for help  Nobody is really thinking that a conflict could be really big  Most of the wars that had happened were big wars that lasted not that long  They felt secure in society - Alliance system:1882 Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy) vs. 1905 Triple Entente (Britain, France and Russia)  The Triple Alliance was basically to isolate France  Germany stops floating Russian debt  the Franco-Russian alliance is about money and the Russians will float billions of dollars of bonds on the French  Britain doesn‟t want to fight on the continent  The Belgians are related to the British and there is a deep sense of alliance there  You didn‟t get attention of your allies unless you were attacked by two powers consecutively  1914 was not a year that they thought there was going to be a war  You don‟t have a lot of voices in European society saying this is a bad thing  For two decades newspapers have tracked Europeans as they colonized the world, they believed they were the best in the world, this spread to all of society - Virulent Nationalism spreads to all ranks of society  This leads to nationalism  Everyone believes very strongly that they are the best place in Europe - Balkan Issue: Serb nationalism and pan-Slavism; decline of the ottoman Empire draws attention to Russia and other powers  The Serbs have very aggressive intentions towards their neighbors  The Russians had backed the Serbs every time they got into problems with their neighbors…so they felt that no matter what they could depend on their bog brother  Orthodoxy has a lot to do with being Slavic…anywhere that speaks a Slavic language and are orthodox were part of a greater slavdom  Every last place on earth needs Europeans there o So of course they look towards the ottoman empire o Very difficult to define borders so everyone gets involved The Spark - Desire for war: popular culture (ex: „future war‟ novels); Social Darwinism makes conflicts between nations seem natural; role of military planners (Schlieffen Plan vs. Plan XVII)  science tells people that certain groups are better than others, studies are happening to prove this  they choose these measurements based on the European norm and however far you were from the norm said how inferior you were  for example: Rowley‟s mom would say that she had so many brains for such a small head  societies would fight with one another because of superiority  our society is under siege  must prove fitness on the battlefield  poor people and criminals are inferior  military planners o no one had this before o they were mapping out future conflicts trying to figure out how to beat one another o once you have a plan and write it down you want to do it o playing risk  Schlieffen Plan o They wanted to battle France and then do Russia because they couldn‟t get there in time  Plan XVII o They thought a conflict was on the horizon as well  Neither of these plans work so they change these plans up - Assassination of Archduke Franz-Ferdinand seen by the Austrians as a chance to crush Serbia  no one was really upset that Franz-Ferdinand was killed…but it started a conflict because they had no ruler  in the wake of him being killed the Austrians feel that they have a chance to crush Serbia  they gave them an ultimatum that is over the top  they want the assassin handed over, they want the Serbs to stop making anti-Austrian announcements  The Serbs are busy looking for allies at this point, everyone waffled to give a politically correct answer on the subject rather than saying no which is what they thought  It is when the Russians move for a partial mobilization that cause the other countries start to move too - July 1914 ultimatum - War declared within a month; domino effect New Kind of Warfare - Knockout blow fails; end of offensive warfare by September 1914  people realized very quickly that this was not going to be a quick war  the Russians mobilized a lot more quickly than the rets of Europe expected  needed a knockout blow for the war to end - Trench warfare – 6250 miles of trenches in France; psychological effect  fought in waves, in a wasteful way  Trenches o Many of these men are in trenches for months on end o Rats, dark, dead people everywhere, feces everywhere  Growing up men read about heroic war, nice outfits o This is not what they got o How did they pass their time, they were bored, cold, wet majority of the time  The soul break in the monotony was being told to run towards the machine guns  This is a dehumanizing of soldiers; brown and grey and beige colors - Conscription armies and machine guns  not enough people are volunteering at first  conscription is completely new  your army is numberless now, you have an endless supply of men - Combat influenced by new technologies including gas, grenades, tanks, flamethrowers, airplanes, dirigibles  machine guns…mow down anyone who is running towards you o gets rid of the cavalry  tanks do not exist yet  have bodies trying to take on new technologies  barbed wire made it almost impossible for people to do offensive style warfare  artillery o rushed up reserves through trains o Europe stopped looking pastoral o The battle of albert  This is not one of the big ones  If it is generating a lot of shell use, then imagine the big ones  Poison gas o One thing that the soldiers really feared because they didn‟t know what to expect o The gas masks leaked, and gas could pocket in the trenches or crevices o Gas is really unpredictable, you need the wind against your direction  Grenades o Throw and don‟t have to see the devastation or the threat  Tanks o The first tanks must have scared people  Flamethrowers o No one killed by a flamethrower had a heroic death  Airplanes o There seems to be a treat all of the time  However most of the time people are doing nothing, just worrying  Civilians could now be targeted o It becomes okay to bomb civilians o If you terrify civilians they would put pressure on their government to surrender  There is a change in the attitude towards workers because they were making the stuff to fight with o So people wanted to bomb the factories, but they missed most of the time, and so they looked like they were going after regular people for no reason - decimation of landscape – 60, 000 square miles of France destroyed  from June to December everything was gone o bombs continue to kill after everything was gone because there are bombs in the ground that have not gone off yet o bomb squads are still called today because a random WWI bomb has gone off in a French field The Home Front - Growing state control – over labor; conscription; rationing  growing power of the modern state  state takes on new powers that it had never had before  state controls labor o concessions, labor, prices, etc o trying to shift workers onto a more militarized living  a duty to fight o an expectation of reciprocity o they expected the state to take care of the families left behind o men at the front saw their families get a payment for their fighting o and expectation that if citizenship has a duty then the state has a duty to the citizen  people start to resent people who get around the system - Mobilizing the mass media  need the media to demonize the other  no one said the Russians or Germans, they had a slur instead  idea that you were fighting a moral crusade against the enemy  people at home had to believe that the men were heroic  countries continue to sell the heroic to keep people working and together at home  given false stories about how your family members died so that society wouldn‟t fall apart - women as nurses and factory workers  product still needed to be produced  debates about what women were capable of doing as a job were put aside and these jobs opened up and women became significant  as men are away from home longer there is a lot more independence that kicks in  clothes became much more like men to do factory work  hair became shorter which was really disturbing to many men  their wives had become factory workers with short hair who were independent  divorce rates sky rocketed after WWI o spousal abuse went up  the men don‟t have an ability to adapt to these changes  women do not want to go back  women‟s roles of nursing got a lot of good publicity o they cared for the broken bodies of men  it is a struggle to decide what roles women should have in the economy - divisions between soldiers and those on the home front; divisions between types of soldiers - views of desertion and those with shell shock  stress was a new thing to deal with  could not blame it on the war because that would mean that the war was wrong  they said that the men were weak or broken because they cracked under pressure  they looked for all kinds of biological solution o some places were nice and gave them baths, others did electroshock therapy or cold baths  the thought was that if they changed the body then the person would come back  hundreds of thousands of men had shell shock, some never spoke again and were in institutions for the rest of their lives  there were vets who came home and had to deal with this o men lashed out in their sleep o often developed drinking problems to sleep better o the code of men was to not talk to their wives or anyone about how they felt  By 1916 desertion is a serious problem o ¼ of units in France were politically unreliable o you were shot if you deserted or did not listen to an order o a lot of men left and had to assume a new identity  hundreds of thousands of men did this because the situation was that bad o in Russia these men took their guns with them and started a revolution WWI and the US - Us enters the war in 1917  they are part of the European discussion from here on out  they did not see the American encroachment as the financial world leaders - Wilson‟s 14 points (Jan 8/1918) – “Making the world safe for democracy.” - Us becomes leading economic power in the world. Europeans owe 4/2/2013 8:15:00 AM Russia at the start of the 20 thcentury - politics – divine right monarchy  Nicolas II was meant to be god‟s representative on earth, you have no right to challenge his opinion, a minister holds a position because he has been given it by the emperor  He doesn‟t enjoy paperwork  He enjoys sport and spending time with his family  He is not a strong willed man, he does delegate though  The people that he delegates too can be removed from favor  He was not a brilliant man, and so he does not like to surround himself with smart people  He sought out people according to how loyal they were to the throne  He s extremely reluctant to give up any kind of power  Giving up some of his power is completely against what he believes in  When he makes concessions he has no intentions to contend to them, he will claw them back as much as possible - Russia is a really big place, it has 11 time zones, there is no railway running through the country yet, it makes it hard to get from one side to the other - Professionalization and middle class  a very small middle class is starting to percolate; doctors, professors, etc.  this is another form of nationalism that forms for these people  how do you meld a Devine right monarchy to industrialization  middle class professionals do not get more rights like many other industrialized countries - working class – heavy concentration in large factories  Marxism – he was not talking about Russia at all…very perplexed about this  It is only the last years of his life that he thought about Russia in that way…because he had fans from there  The Russians found an interesting way of lying with statistics o Growth rates  Russia‟s working class was growing faster than any other working class in Europe  They think they will be able to take over Europe o These people had a lot of influence o Where they work and where the factories are will affect them politically  Russia doesn‟t really industrialize until the 2d industrial revolution  The government wanted to be able to watch over the factories so they put large factories with about 5 thousand people in a factory  And they were all next door to each other o So this is bad when it comes to discontent o People can get others to protest much easier o Massive strikes – hundreds of thousands of workers o General strikes that shut down the entire economy o They put all the pissed off people together o Peer pressure pulls into this, propaganda works well and easily in these places o This is incredibly significant – they cripple the Russian economy in 1905  They were going on strike because their working conditions were terrible o 57.5 hours a week o children under the age of 12 did not have to go over 40 hours o they were not paid particularly well o many lived in factory houses, depending on their employers for food, water, etc.  their time was supervised o enforced church attendance – workers wanted their Sunday‟s off – they wanted to go to a village fist fight o people start complaining that they were people and that they should not be treated like this o advanced metal workers were the only ones who could afford to have their own living arrangements o people who could afford to get out of the factory houses often shared a place with 40 different people o infant mortality rate was up of 50% o there was no work insurance, if they got injured they hoped they could go home to their home village  they have nothing to lose o what is the state doing for them o does the emperor even know about their condition o SR launch a terrorist campaign o A lot of violence in the background here o Peasants are not leading the charge here  But they also don‟t have a lot to lose - peasantry – serfdom ends 1860‟s; village commune; antiquated farming methods  peasants got only a certain percentage of the land and had to pay over 49 years when the serfs were freed  they were giving money to parasites, to people who lived in houses and did nothing  peasants worked a lot of hours o they had so many children that the plots were divided up way too much, so they had to send people to the town to do other work o the land is insufficient for the number of people that want to farm it  Russia has horrendous farming techniques at that point o Farming strips  Spent a lot of time walking from one strip to another  They have field after field with bumpy speed bumps over it  3 year rotation – so you didn‟t get to keep your land so why work hard on it you also don‟t get to decide what to plant o this system hampers modernization  bring in stolypin o to undertake agricultural reform o strip consolidation  there is not enough time to change everything in 7 years o it was working, just not enough time o they were heading in the right direction o they ran into WWI  all kinds of reforms get pushed to the side - 1905 revolution and October manifesto – troops stay local; creation of Duma; emergence of soviets  the country is fighting a war at this point  they had the power to really cripple the entire economy  A group of workers go to petition the emperor o They want an 8 hour workday, they want better wages, etc. o They notify the police in advance o Couple hundred thousand people marching down St. Petersburg o Police are stationed along the way o Someone stresses and hundreds of people were killed o That send shock waves through the country o The demonstrators didn‟t even know that he wasn‟t living in the castle they were moving towards  People believed that the emperor loved them and that the advisors were the bad guys o This changed, they felt that they did nothing wrong, they just wanted to hand the emperor a piece of paper  The revolutionaries called off the truce they had with the regime  Some of the units of the Russo-Japanese war are not listening and they figure that the troops are not loyal enough for a military dictatorship  ***so, Nicolas has to give some concessions o the October manifesto  middle class decides they can give it a try o there were far fewer concessions than people thought they could get  from 1905-1914 there is a parliament o could question ministers if they would go to the dumas building o they don‟t have control over finances o they can shriek, they are immune from anything they say in the dumas building, whatever they wanted, and then this was reported in the newspapers o the first 2 dumas do not last very long o none of them lasted very long  Nicolas didn‟t want anything to do with the Dumas rd  By the time you got to the elections of the 3 Dumas, one aristocrats vote was worth 20 thousand peasants vote  And even though they didn‟t get a dumas that they really wanted  You don‟t have an emperor who wants to give up anything  The regime got lucky in 1905 o Cossack  HOPE is the worst thing you can give to someone o It causes the revolution to die down and save the regime  The soviets provide workers with the experience of working together and… - Witte - in 1906 – the regime survives WHAT IS THE REVOLUTION TRIGGER!!!  WWI brings back all of those class divisions  Shows the extent to which the regime is mismanaged  The people in charge do not look like they know what they are doing World War I - Nicolas orders a partial mobilization because he wasn‟t ready for a full one - Initial patriotism gives way to despair  conscription o 12 million men are hauled into the Army  they had no clue what they were fighting for  they had never been anywhere before  they never get passed that gap in knowledge  many of them rioted, going after drugstores, restaurants, and bars  that is what you see when you get outside of the capital cities, and this is only a month into the war - Shortages and Refugees - prohibition  Nicolas brings this in, because alcohol consumption had lead to losses  He was surrounded by people who were involved in the temperance movement  There is a problem with this logic  He doesn‟t take the next step  The reality was that Russia was heavily dependent on tax‟s and alcohol sales to finance their budget o 20% of tax‟s came from alcohol  by 1915, they are in huge financial problems o the government has no money to buy rifles anymore  this is a good example of the kind of bad decisions that Nicolas makes - Russians also don‟t fight very well  the Germans push hundreds of miles into Russia o and so a ¼ of industry is in foreign lands o people that live in that area start walking  10 million refugees  there is nothing for these people, they are not wanted  you don‟t see social cohesion is Russia during this war  moral is in the tank by the middle of 1915 o draconian labor laws  women flock to the factories in vast numbers but they are not paid a lot  industry by 1915 is cracking  there are not enough shoes, boots, artillery, shells, o only four shells can be fired a day  by 1915 the Austrians are moving inwards too - Tsar goes to the front  he puts his uncle out of the way, a man people like  he makes the decisions now and so everything is blamed on him  who is running the government now o his wife  she was not a visible public figure  she was awkward, she didn‟t know what to say  sciatica – stays forever with her  she used a wheelchair  she could barely stand  they don‟t know who they are but they also don‟t know about these crises  they had 4 daughters in quick succession  they have a son who has hemophilia o they don‟t tell people, they retreat into domestic life o she goes to faith healers  she goes to Rasputin  it works for some reason  she rewards him  the government ministers start revolving around Rasputin‟s likes  start to have rumors circulating that that she is a German princes that is a traitor - desertion  in 1916 hundreds of thousands of men start going home and taking their guns with them 1917 - Bread strike  women get angry  riots with men and women  Nicolas says just put them down  They go to the military and plea  They open the doors to the cabinets and start handing out guns  Cossacks ride right down and do not put the riot down - NOBODY WANTS THE THROWN!! - Provisional government and its rivalry with Petrograd soviet - Lenin‟s April Theses (“Bread, Peace, Land” and “All power to the soviets”) - Kerensky offensive - July Days - Kornilov Affair and Bolshevik Seizure of Power 4/2/2013 8:15:00 AM World War I and the United States  Official entry into the war in April 1917  Woodrow Wilson‟s 14 points (January 8/1918) o “making the world safe for democracy”  no secret treaties, boundaries set by people within them  league of nations o Woodrow wanted to stay out of the war…however he realized that he couldn‟t o He realized that he could make the world better if could make people talk about things o His plan was widely publicized  Us becomes leading economic power in the world  Flu epidemic – averaged 66, 000 deaths per day for the worst part o 40 million people die of flu  Have political leaders who try to create a solution for all the nagging problems in Europe…but they end up causing more problems The Peace Process  People at top – prime minister, president of US the French… and sometimes the head of Italy  French are determined to punish the Germans  Blame the Germans – size of reparations‟ military restrictions; effect of Germany o This is a clause that causes a lot of difficulties in Germany o That war guilt clause sticks in their throat  It is one of the reasons they try to get rid of the Versailles settlement o They have tried to decapitate the entire German military o Germany is going to be made to pay financially for the war  100 billion…  and the French will occupy Germany until they are paid o They lost territory o They create major inflation o What you have instead is a world where people who accept this treaty are thrown under the bus  League of Nations not viable o The Americans opt out by not signing the agreement o The Russians are not invited to sign the agreement o The league has not military force  No way to stop bad behaviors of others o It does not have the teeth that the united nations have after WWII o There is no racial equality clause  Why it is that questions of race and ethnicity have so many questions around this time o You can‟t find a border that will satisfy everyone o The map gets a lot more complicated in the 20‟s when there places break up o Some of the countries that they are going to create through the treaty of Versailles do not have a diversified economy  They are also very small economy‟s…they will not weather the storm well  They also have to invent their ruling system from scratch o  Borders in Eastern Europe – no traditions of democracy; fear spread of Russian Revolution Societal change - Visible reminders of the war – new landscapes (cemetaries; monuments) & the disabled  - a flawed peace process that penalizes some people  - people want to rearrange their borders  - the land is terrible  - societal changes – visible reminders of the war o huge drives to memorialize the dead Women in the public sphere – ex: the divorce ate doubles in Germany  - women did not go back to the home o style, behavior o they did not want to go back to the old world o no desire to return to less comfortable clothing  - more people are drinking and dancing more heavily  - society has fundamentally changed  - soviet union gave women the right to vote and the right to abortion  this is going to inspire women activists in the 20‟s and fight for more rights elsewhere  - men that came home were not given much security - Labor militancy & red scares; strikes  - Emergence of communist parties - Artistic experimentation – European sense of superiority seems naïve; “lost generation”; stream of consciousness; film experimentation  avant-garde  different kinds of dance, music, literature  people who wanted escapism needed to get it by looking at new things  people will want to create a traditional world Economic woes  Governments print money to pay their war debts o Inflations and savings o Not at hyperinflation o Inflation erodes the economic well being of some groups  Working groups and middle class  People who have put away money in savings for the future  All the banked money became worthless  Pensions disappeared  Long-term unemployment – by 1932, 24 million plus unemployed worldwide; by 1932, 2 of 5 German workers unemployed; others on short hours o People out of work for years at a time o Affects new segments of society as well o Unemployment is going to trickle into groups of people who have never experienced it before  Accountants, lawyers, bakes, readers, writers, scientists o Also unemployed in a world with no safety net o Nazism takes hold in Germany because of the unemployed rate o  Limit employment of women – preference given to unemployed men  Inter-connectedness of economics = ripple effect More Economic Woes  Speculation in financial markets – October 1929 NY stock market crashes  State of economic knowledge at time o Very limited o Very few people and programs to teach people about this o People are not studying this as a discipline yet o  Banks call in loans – other banks collapse, particularly in Germany Us Loans to Europe  Many short-term and subject to recall on limited notice  1924 c. 520 billion  1925 c. 610 billion  1926 c. 490 billion  1927 c. 580 billion  1928 c. 590 billion  1929 c. 140 billion o banks had been borrowing from other banks o banking is now an international thing The Pain goes on…  1931 Europeans go off gold standard (fight idea at first); also cut government spending o the value of money goes down and so debt goes down  Tariffs (economic nationalism) leads to decline in exports o Begin to see countries slapping tariffs on exports and it triggers and enormous collapse on trade  The banks are collapsing everywhere Decline in Exports (1929-1932)  Only country that looks okay is USSR but that is only because they start from such a poor place Solutions  Keynes advocates deficit spending o Worked in Nazi Germany  German recovery – end of reparations & rearmament under Hitler; remove women from workplace (ex: 1933 marriage loans) o Takes Hitler to be elected to bring Germany back o By 1935 it is clear that Germany has weathered the worst of the depression  Attraction of Soviet path – capitalism appears to be failing o Stall in Russia The Search for Scapegoat  Statistics movement – who wants numbers and why?  Francis Galton coins term “eugenics” in 1883 – the “science” of improving human stock by giving “the most suitable races or strains of blood [i.e. classes] a better chance of prevailing speedily over the less suitable.” o Eugenics becomes a world wide phenomenon o What they see as inferiority in human beings o These groups are widespread to the point that they can hold conferences all over the world o  Eugenics as popular culture – 1912 1 International Eugenics Conference held in London (chaired by Balfour; sponsors included Lord Chief Justice & Winston Churchill) Quotations from Winston Churchill  “The unnatural and increasingly rapid growth of the feeble-minded and insane classes, coupled as it is with the steady restriction among all the thrifty, energetic and superior stocks, constitutes a national and race danger which it is impossible… Search fro Scapegoats  Ranks people by groups [criminals and paupers; poor and low-paid; „respectable‟ working class; skilled workers, foremen, clerks, small tradesmen; independent professionals and large employers  Led to immigration laws that target certain groups  Forced sterilizations – countries involved included Canada, Norway, Finland, Estonia and Iceland o People who are deemed feeble-minded  Between 1910-1935, more than 100, 000 people were sterilized in the Us for “feeble-mindedness”. Fascist Italy and Stalinist Russia 4/2/2013 8:15:00 AM Characteristics of a Fascist Society  More than 40 countries have a fascist party  Societies based on service to the nation  Look to dictatorial rule to counter fear from “left”; importance of charismatic ruler  Take root in places with weak traditions of democracy; advocate strong nationalist and militarized country  Country has special destiny; national community to overcome class differences  Promise to restore “social order”  Pro-natal campaigns; foreground family  Target frustrated war veterans  Scapegoat Jews and communists - the literature, films, speeches are meant to play on peoples emotions, not to make sense. - the leaders promised a return of a mythic idea of the past  weren‟t things great before the war…women at home, great militaries, etc.  narrative about morality  racial overtones…identifying people who are not part of the social order…need to take this group out of society to get jobs back - Quote from Hitler – Motherhood was woman‟s supreme function, they can make no greater contribution to the nation then to have children  this sounds great to men who came back from the war to find their wives different, this is great - Identify Tangible others  Claudia Coones o Tried to understand how did average everyday humans come to change their thought process o How did they go from being a person to being a thing that can depersonalize their neighbors o Process of providing scapegoats o If you manipulate long enough, people are willing to turn a blind eye…but this has to be done in small steps o Communists parties  Social classes have commonalities  If you allow that kind of thinking you undermine any kind of fascist structure Nazi Germany  Weakening of political center  Consolidation of power: 1) Reichstag Fire; 2) March 1933 parliamentary elections – results ignored & Nazi‟s given „emergency powers‟; 3)ban other political parties; 4) destroy trade unions; 5) recruit new members; 6) army oath of allegiance o Reichstag Fire  Blamed on communists – plot to burn down the parliament  Public opinion shifts against communism o Emergency powers  They are to deal with terrorist threats  Those allow them to arrest and try people without normal legal due process, it suspended the law  They did not need to produce evidence or public trials, they have no way of appealing those sentences o Attack power of other political parties  People can be fired from their jobs for political unreliability  Anything that you want to make it  If they are members of the wrong party o By the end of 1934  Majority of communist party members are arrested, fired, deported o Trade unions  Shut down, cannot oppose anything the Nazi part wants o Nazi Party  Swells well over 2 million  A realization that joining the party makes sense career wise…they don‟t really care about the ideologies o Start to see people joining organizations, not realizing the greater significance and ideology that these organizations represent  Slowing the party turned them into real Nazi‟s  Control of society: education; social organizations; ideological clampdown; mobilization of propaganda and culture o Do it through public organizations, things that people are going to join without thinking o The army was Hitler‟s only challenge  Make them take a new oath of allegiance to Hitler himself  Oaths mattered, you don‟t just take them willy nilly  Anyone who would not take that oath was an opponent and they could be neutralized o The Nazi‟s now have no opponents o They made Nazi activities more fun  Nazi Youth Groups  Given guns and told to go play  Young boys preferred to do that
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