advertising is any paid form of nonpersonal communication about an organization, good, service,
or idea by an identified sponsor.
i. types of advertisements
a. product advertisements
product advertisements focus on selling a good or service and take three forms:
pioneering (or informational) advertisements, which tell people what a product
is, what it can do, and where it can be found.
competitive (or persuasive) advertisements, which promote a specific brand's
features and benefits. a common form of competitive advertising is a
comparative advertisement, which shows one brand's strengths relative to a
reminder advertisements, which reinforce previous knowledge of a product.
one type is called reinforcement, which assures buyers they made the correct
B. institutional advertisements
institutional advertisements are designed to build goodwill or image for an
organization and take four forms:
advocacy advertisements state the position of a company on an issue.
pioneering institutional advertisements are used for a new announcement about
what a company is, what it can do, or where it is located.
competitive institutional advertisements are used to promote the advantages of
one product class over another and are used in markets in which there are
different product classes competing for the same buyers.
reminder institutional advertisements, like the product form, simply bring the
company's name to the attention of the target market again.
direct response advertising: motivates customers’ immediate action
delayed-response advertising: designed to motivate consumers to take action in
the near future.
1. message content. all advertising messages have both informational and
persuasive elements. appeals to provide a basic reason for the consumer
to act include:
fear appeals - e.g. life insurance ads sex appeals - e.g. calvin klein ads
humorous appeals - e.g. everready energizer battery bunny ads
choosing a medium and a vehicle within that medium.
advertisers must choose from several media, such as tv, radio, newspapers, or magazines.
they must also choose from several vehicles within each medium.
the mix of media and vehicles should maximize exposure while minimizing costs.
2. basic terms. common terms for media buyers include: reach, rating, frequency, gross
rating points (grps), and cost per thousand (cpm).
different media alternatives
some advantages and disadvantages of the major media alternatives include:
1. television communicates with sight and sound, and reaches 99 percent of
canadian homes. because the average cost of a 30-second ad is now
$30,000 on canadian networks, many advertisers are "splitting 30's". an-
other problem is wasted coverage, where people outside the target market
see the ad. an increasingly popular form of television advertising is the
infomercial. infomercials are program-length (30 minutes) advertisements
that take an educational approach to communication with potential
2. radio is a very segmented medium, so it can reach very well-defined target
market segments. it can't be used for products