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L3 Principles of Teaching and Learning.docx
L3 Principles of Teaching and Learning.docx

14 Pages
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Dalhousie University
NURS 2000
Adele Vukic

Principles of Teaching and Learning; Incorporating Factors Influencing the Process Chief Factors Influencing Teaching is the Nature of the Learner 1. Age (Developmental Characteristics) 2. Literacy 3. Gender 4. SES (socioeconomic status) 5. Educational Experience 6. Abilities 7. Culture 1. Developmental Characteristics: Chronological age versus stage of development Example: children with chronic illness often are delayed developmentally; an adolescent that suffers a traumatic event may regress developmentally. Rationale: Chronological age per se is not a good predictor of learning ability. At any given age, there can be a wide variation in physical, cognitive, and psychosocial variables. Developmental stage acknowledges that human growth and development are sequential, but not always specifically age-related. Developmental Stages of Childhood: Pedagogy is the art and science of helping children learn 1. Infancy and Toddlerhood 2. Preschooler 3. School-aged Child 4. Adolescence 1. Infancy and Toddlerhood: must focus on teaching parents the need for stimulation, nutrition and to prevent injury. Piaget: sensorimotor stage. Learning is through sensory experiences and through movement and manipulation of objects Erikson: trust vs. mistrust (birth to 12 months) autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1–3 years). Building trust and learning to control willful desires General Characteristics: 1. Cognitive: Example: responds to step-by-step commands; language skills develop rapidly during this stage 2. Psychosocial: Example: routines provide sense of security 2. Preschooler: Piaget: preoperational stage. Egocentric; thinking is literal and concrete; precausal thinking Erikson: initiative vs. guilt. Taking on tasks for the sake of being involved and on the move; learning to express feelings through play General Characteristics 1. Cognitive: Example: animistic thinking; limited sense of time; egocentric; 2. Psychosocial: Example: separation anxiety; play is his/her work; fears bodily injuries; active imagination 3. School-Aged Child: Piaget: concrete operations stage. Developing logical thought processes and ability to reason; understands cause and effect Erikson: industry vs. inferiority. Gaining a sense of responsibility and reliability; increased susceptibility to social forces outside the family unit; gaining awareness of uniqueness of special talents and qualities General Characteristics: 1. Cognitive: Example: learns to draw conclusions and are able to understand cause and effect 2. Psychosocial: Example: fears failure and being left out of groups; fears illness and disability 4. Adolescence: Piaget: formal operations stage. Abstract thought; reasoning is both inductive and deductive Erikson: identity vs. role confusion. Struggling to establish own identity; seeking independence and autonomy General Characteristics: 1. Cognitive: Example: abstract thinking; complex logical reasoning; can build on past experiences 2. Psychosocial: Example: personal fable—feels invulnerable, invincible/immune to natural laws Example: imaginary audience—intense personal preoccupation What are some pedagogical considerations that would match the developmental characteristics of youth? 5. Developmental Stages of Adulthood: Andragogy: the art and science of helping adults learn 1. Young Adulthood 2. Middle-Aged Adulthood 3. Older Adulthood Adult Learning Principles: relates learning to immediate needs; self-directed; teacher is facilitator; learner desires active role 1. Young Adulthood: Piaget: formal operations stage (begins in adolescence and carries through adulthood). Abstract thought; reasoning is both inductive and deductive Erikson: intimacy vs. isolation. Focusing on relationships and commitment to others in their personal, occupational, and social lives General Characteristics: 1. Cognitive: Example: cognitive capacity is fully developed, but continuing to accumulate new knowledge and skills 2. Psychosocial: Example: autonomous; independent; stress related to the many decisions being made regarding career, marriage, parenthood and higher education 2. Middle-Aged Adulthood: Piaget: formal operations stage. Abstract thought; reasoning is both inductive and deductive Erikson: generativity vs. self-absorption and stagnation. Reflecting on accomplishments and determining if life changes are needed General Characteristics: 1. Cognitive: Example: ability to learn remains steady throughout this stage 2. Psychosocial: Example: facing issues with grown children, changes in own health, and increased responsibility for own parents 3. Older Adulthood: Piaget: formal operations stage Abstract thought; reasoning is both inductive and deductive Erikson: ego integrity vs. despair. Coping with reality of aging, mortality, and reconciliation with past failures Geragogy—the teaching of older persons, accommodating the normal physical, cognitive and psychosocial changes General Characteristics: 1. Cognitive Example: fluid intelligence—capacity to perceive relationships, to reason, and to perform abstract thinking, which declines with aging Example: crystallized intelligence—the intelligence absorbed over a lifetime, which increases with experience 2. Psychosocial Example: adjusting to changes in lifestyle, and physical limitations What are some teaching considerations for matching the developmental characteristics of adults? 2. Literacy  Major problem in Canada and influences health education and health outcomes  Ability to learn from instructional materials depends on the client’s educational background, motivation, and reading and comprehension skills  Nurse educators need to know how to identify clients with literacy problems, assess their needs, and choose appropriate interventions Definitions: 1. Literacy: the ability of adults to read, write, and comprehend information at the 8th grade level or above. 2. Illiteracy: the total inability of adults to read, write, and comprehend information. 3. Low Literacy: the ability of adults to read, write, and comprehend information between the 5th to 8th grade level of difficulty. Also synonymous with the terms marginally literate or marginally illiterate. 4. Functionally Illiterate: inability of adults to read, write, and comprehend information below the 5th grade level of difficulty in order to use information as it is intended for effective functioning in today’s society. 5. Readability: the ease with which written or printed information can be read. Stereotypes and Myths 1. People who are illiterate can have normal IQ’s 2. People who are illiterate cannot be recognized by their appearance 3. The number of years of schooling completed does not correlate with literacy skills 4. Illiteracy knows no socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic boundaries 5. People who are illiterate will not freely admit to having problems with reading, writing and comprehension Clues to Illiteracy Most people with limited literacy abilities are masters of concealment. Possible signs of poor or nonexistent reading ability include:  Reacting to complex learning situations  Asking someone to read information for by withdrawal or avoidance them  Using the excuse of being too busy, not  Becoming nervous when asked to read interested, too tired, or not feeling well  Acting confused or talking out of context enough to read instructional materials about the topic of conversation  Claiming they lost, forgot, or broke their  Showing signs of frustration when glasses attempting to read  Surrounding themselves with books,  Having difficulty following directions magazines, and newspapers to give the  Listening and watching attentively to try impression that they are able to read to memorize information  Insisting on reading the information at  Failing to ask questions home or with a spouse or friend present  Revealing a discrepancy between what they hear and what is written Ethical and Legal Concerns  Printed education materials (PEMs) that are too difficult to read or comprehend result in mis-communication between consumers and health care providers  Nursing Standards requires that patients and their significant others are provided with information that is understandable  The Patient’s Bill of Rights mandates that patients receive complete and current information in terms they can understand  Informed consent, as a result of verbal and/or written instructions, must be voluntary and based on an understanding of benefits and risks to treatment or procedures  Health care professionals are liable, legally and/or ethically, when information shared is above the level of the patient’s ability to comprehend Readability of Printed Education Materials (PEMs)  Research findings indicate that most PEMs are written at grade levels that far exceed the
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