BIOL 271 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Posterior Interventricular Sulcus, Chordae Tendineae, Superior Vena Cava

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9 Mar 2014
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The Heart
pumps over 5 million litres of blood a year through over 120,000
km of blood vessels
Orientation
in mediastinum
region medial to lungs, superior to diaphragm, inferior to
thoracic inlet, posterior to sternum
contains heart and great vessels, trachea, thymus gland,
esophagus
"tipped inverted cone"
base: (top) directed to the posterior, superior, right
(right shoulder)
apex: (bottom) directed to the anterior, inferior, left
(left foot)
pointed to anterior, right
surface projection
apex lies in 5th intercostal space, about 9 cm (1 hand-
width) to L of midline
Coverings
pericardium
surrounds and protects the heart
allows space for movement of heart
outer fibrous sac, inner serous layer that lines sac and
covers heart
fibrous pericardium
dense irregular CT (bag around heart)
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protects the heart
prevents over stretching
serous pericardium
thin delicate membrane
two layers
parietal layer:
lines fibrous pericardium cavity
visceral layer
covers the heart
pericardial cavity
between parietal and visceral pericardium
contains serous fluid
epicardium
visceral layer of serous pericardium
myocardium
cardiac muscle
thickest layer of the heart wall
endocardium
forms valves, lines chambers
very smooth, so blood doesn't clot
Chambers and Sulci
four chambers
2 atria
2 ventricles
sulci
grooves on surface of heart
contain coronary blood vessels and fat
not visible, because filled with b.v. and fat
keeps b.v.s protected from damage, by surrounding
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them
coronary sulcus
encircles heart
lies between atria and ventricles
anterior interventricular sulcus
boundary between ventricles on anterior surface of heart
posterior interventricular sulcus
boundary between ventricles on posterior surface of heart
Right Atrium
receives blood from:
superior vena cava
inferior vena cava
coronary sinus
drains deoxygenated blood from circulatory system
right atrium is like the lobby: only entrance to the heart
fossa ovalis
depression in intertribal septum
remnant of the foramen ovale (from fetal period)
connected right and left atria
closes w/in minutes of being born
Tricuspid valve
three cusps (flap of tissue / door)
dense CT covered with endocardium
blood passes through to enter R ventricle
prevents back flow from R ventricle to R atrium
Right Ventricle
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