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Lecture 9

Psychology Lecture 9 Nov 6, 2013.docx

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PSYCH 1100
Mike Moland

PSYC-1100-YB RB-1042 Dr. M. Moland Psychology November 6, 2013 7:00 PM Drugs Pharmacokinetics: the 'movement' of the drug through the body Drugs: Non-food chemical that alters one or more normal biological processes in living organisms Psychoactive drugs: site of action is on the central nervous system Drugs are therapeutic - they are not good or bad (caffeine vs. LSD), they are just drugs They alter on-going processes, not create new functions Drugs like tracts they are similar too (blood stream is basic - inject basic drugs, stomach is acidic - eat acidic drugs : example, don't eat cocaine, it's basic) Administration  Has an impact on how fast the drug will act (quick of slow effect)  Drug molecules can have difficulty passing molecules; impeding the process to get to the site of action, the brain, and is at risk of being metabolized  Lipid or water: can the drug pass through fat tissues; likely - lipid soluble, water soluble tend to be metabolized and have a difficult time passing membranes  Acidic or alkaline: drugs taken orally - acidic, will break down much less in an acidic environment, alkaline - breaks down into component parts and don't pass membranes Cross membranes easily Cross with difficulty Solubility Lipid-soluble Water-soluble Ionization Un-ionized Ionized Polarization Nonpolar Polar Size Small Large Oral Administration  20-30 minutes to take effect  Usually swallowed and absorbed through GI tract, face a long journey to the site of action (cross many membranes)  Advantages o Economical, convenient, easy o Safe in case of emergencies (can be vomited) o Sublingual route offers quick absorption  Disadvantages: o Not good in emergencies: takes too long o Require proper pH: need similar pH to be well absorbed o Food in stomach: food must pass the small intestine first o Rerouted to the liver: metabolized (first pass metabolism) o Individual differences in pharmacokinetics: difficult to predict/control effects o Consent/cooperation: choke hazard, taste o Drug absorption is variable (constantly changing GI tract) I.V. Administration PSYC-1100-YB RB-1042 Dr. M. Moland  Advantages: o Most rapid effect o Most accurate way to control dosage levels o Short delay of effect in emergencies (from forearm to brain is less than 15 seconds) o Can be used when patient is unconscious o Taste doesn’t matter  Disadvantages: o Using the same vein: collapse, irritation o Drug cannot be recalled o Drug will little effect orally: can be extremely toxic o Pain of injection, sterility of needles, cost o Drugs muse be in aq solution and have an aq vehicle o High concentration levels: adverse reaction is severe Tolerance  Occurs when repeated doses of a drug give less and less of an effect  Metabolic tolerance (liver and enzyme induction): increase enzyme level, more drug is needed to get an affect (alcoholic
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