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Lecture 4

Psychology Lecture 4 Oct 2, 2013.docx

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Lakehead University
PSYCH 1100
Mike Moland

PSYC-1100-YB RB-1042 Dr. M. Moland Psychology October 2, 2013 7:00 PM Neurons  Specialized cells that carry messages through the central nervous system - everything in life involved activation of neurons, ex: thinking, moving  Cell body: the cell's life support centre, cell executive  Dendrites: receive info and conduct it toward the cell body  Axon: pass the message along to other neurons or to muscles or glands  Axons speak - dendrites listen  Myelin sheath: a layer of fatty tissue that insulates the axons of some neurons and speeds their messages, degenerates in multiple sclerosis - cannot be conveyed as well, slowness  Notes of Ranvier: the junction of the myelin links - this is where the electrical messages get activated, re-energizing  Neurons fire impulses when it receives chemical signals or messages from sense receptors - like batteries  This impulse is called an action potential - a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon  Nerve cells connect with other nerve cells, if there is enough stimulation, impulses are fired  Firing of neurons - chemistry to electricity process involves the exchange of electrically charged atoms, called ions  The interior of a resting axon has an excess of negatively charged ions, while the outside of the axon membrane has more positively charged ions - if the interior is more negative, the less likely the neuron will fire - resting potential  Numbness from novocaine: less activation through less responsive, alcohol: extra Cl- in the interior of the cell, less likely to fire (gaba) Synapse  Axon terminal: tip of the axon - just before the synaptic gap or cleft  Synaptic vesicles: contain neurotransmitter - sac that houses the neurotransmitters - when they connect with the axon terminal they burst and release the neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft  Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers  Synaptic gap: the space between neurons  Synaptic cleft: the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron  If there is not enough information, they do not fire, if there is, they fire  Neurotransmitters bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron - as precisely as a key fits a lock  Excess neurotransmitter are reabsorbed by the sending neuron to be used again later: reuptake  SSIR - leaves the serotonin stranded in the cleft, to interact with the dendrites surrounding it - believed to be relief of depression according to pharmaceutical companies, lack of serotonin in the brain - leaving it in the synaptic cleft, leads to more serotonin Antipsychotic Drugs (Neuroleptic, Major Tranquilizer)  Block dopamine receptors  Any drug that makes dopamine increase (cocaine) will create psychotic episodes
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