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Langara College
BIOL 1175

Blood October 9 2012 What are the functions of blood? Transportation: Oxygen, nutrients, wastes, carbon dioxide, hormones and more Defense: against invasion by pathogens Regulatory functions: body temperature, water-salt balance and body pH What is the composition of blood? Formed elements: from cells produced in bone marrow Red Blood cells White blood cells Platelets Plasma: 92%water and 8& salts and organic molecules 3 major types of plasma proteins Albumins – most abundant and important for plasma’s osmotic pressure as well as the transport of other molecules Egg white Globulins – Transport lipids and fat soluble vitamins and some are antibodies Fibrinogen – important for the formation of blood clots Red blood cells – carries 23% of C02 (waste) No DNA Carries lots and lots of hemoglobin The structure of red blood cell is important to their function Lack a nucleus and few organelles Biconcave shape increases surface area Contains about 280 million hemoglobin molecules and each hemoglobin molecule binds 4 oxygen Production of red blood cell is controlled by negative feedback Produced in red bone marrow Lifespan is about 120 days Erythropoietin (EPO) is excreted by kidney cells and moves to red marrow when oxygen levels are low Old cells are destroyed by the liver and spleen What is blood doping? Any method of increasing the number of RBC’s to increase athletic performance Allows more efficient delivery of oxygen and reducing fatigue EPO is injected into a person months prior to athletic event Is thought to be able to cause death due to thickening of blood that leads to heart attack What disorders involve RBC’s? Anemia – a condition resulting from too few RBC or hemoglobin that causes a run- down feeling Sickle-cell anemia – genetic disease that causes RBC’s to be sickle shaped that tend to rupture Hemolytic disease of the newborn – a condition with incompatible blood types that leads to rupturing of blood cells in a baby before and continuing after birth White Blood cells Derived from red bone marrow Large blood cells that have nucleus Production is regulated by colony-stimulating factor Can be found in the blood as well as in tissues Removes waste, toxin and damaged cells How are white blood cells categorized? Granular – contains noticeable granules, lobed nuclei Eosinophil (fight parasitic worms and allergies) Neutrophils (phagocytic: absorb everything in site) Basophils (releases histamine related to allergic reactions) Lymphocytes (large nucleus that takes up most of the cytoplasm and develop into B and T cells) Monocyte Extravasation – movement of WBC’S out of the circulation out of the blood stream to fight pathogens Without DNA, the cell cannot produce proteins or repair old , warn out cell parts. This will eventually kill the cell What disorders involve WBC’s? Severe combined immunodeficiency disease – are inherited disease in which stem cells of WBC’S lack an enzyme that allows them to fight any infection Leukemia – a group of cancers that affect white blood cells in which cells proliferate without control Infectious mononucleosis – also known as the “kissing disease” occurs when the Epstein-Barr virus infects lymphocytes resulting in fatigue, sore throat and swollen lymph nodes Platelets Made of fragments of large cells called megakaryocytes made in the red bone marrow About 200 billion are made per day Function in blood clotting Blood proteins named thrombin and fibrinogen are important for blood clotting by generating fibrin threads tha
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