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CO2 AND O2.docx

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BIOL 1175

CO2 AND O2 The trachea - Tube often called the windpipe that connects the larynx with the bronchi The lungs - Bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli beyond the bronchi make up the lungs - The right lung has 3 lobes while the left has 2, divide further into lobules - Each lung is enclosed by membrane called pleura, keeps keep lungs expanded The alveoli - 300 million in lungs that greatly increased surface area - alveoli is surrounded by capillaries - alveoli and capillaries are one layer of epithelium that allows exchange of gas - lined with surfactant that act as film to keep alveoli open and prevent from collapsing and sticking together, helps break surface tension of water Two phases of breathing/ventilation 1. Inspiration/Inhalation: (Active) diaphragm and intercostal muscle contracts  -diaphragm flattens and the rib cage moves upward and out 2. Exhalation: (passive) chest cavity decreases Vital capacity: total volume you are able to inhale How do we control breathing? - Nervous control: respiratory control center in the brain (medulla oblongata) sends out signals will trigger your breathing to increase or decrease. Involuntary or autonomic control - Chemoreceptors will detect incased blood level of c02 (increase of ph), or sense from the blood Excess o
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