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1848 : Part I
* Whigs dominated the Parliament.
* Victoria (1837 - 1901) => high point of prosperity, economy, power in Britain.
* Louis Felipe => France.
* King Frederick William IV => Prussia.
* Nicholas I => Russia.
* Ferdinand I => Austria (The "Polyglot" empire).
"The Springtime of the People"
* The 1848 Revolution.
* The spread of new radical ideologies.
* The Springtime of people was the "revolution of the intellectuals".
* The economic problems caused a revolution.
* The importance of the "Hungry Forties".
* In 1845, Potato Blight's crops were destroyed and it affected the peasants => caused
starvation and hunger.
* In 1846, Poor Grain Harvest occurred in France and Britain.
* In 1847, Economic Crisis caused Bankruptcy => factories and banks were closed;
unemployment and food crisis was high.
* In 1848, the economy rebounded.
* Polices were agents of repression.
* Bourgeoisie was concerned about their wrath than he lower classes.
* Revolution in France:
- Faced high unemployment and food crisis.