Arthrology, & Flexibility Answers
There are 3 planes of the body. Sagittal - a vertical plane passing though the front to back
dividing the right and left side. Frontal - a vertical plane passing thought the body from side to
side dividing the anterior and posterior halves. Transverse - a horizontal plane that passes
through the body dividing upper and lower halves. There are 3 axes of the body. The frontal
horizontal axis passes horizontally from side to side. The sagittal horizontal passes horizontally
from front to back. The vertical axis passes through the body vertically.( LOOK AT DIAGRAMS)
Medial-structures near the midline of body or the segment.
Lateral-structure away from the midline of body or segment.
Superior-towards the head
Inferior-towards the feet
Anterior- to the front
Posterior- to the back
Proximal- towards the trunk of the body
Distal-away from the trunk of the body Internal-away from the surface of the body
a. The bones of the knee joint is consist of two bones tibia and the fibula. Tibia and fibula is
protected from fiction by tibial fossa. There are also two cartilage located on both side of femur.
On the medial side it is called medial meniscus and on the lateral side it is called lateral
meniscus. The two most important ligament is located inside the behind the patella forming a
cross within the knee between tibia and fibula called cruciate. On the medial side of the knee
medial collateral ligament joins the medial condyle of the femur and tibia. On the lateral side of
the knee lateral collateral ligament joins the fibula and femur.
b. The hip joint is very stable because the femur is fit deeply inside the acetabulum of the pelvis
girdle making a secure ball and socket joint. It is also supported with several ligament on the
anterior side it is supported by the iliofemoral and pubofemoral ligament and on the posterior
side it is supported by ischiofemoral ligament.
c. There are 4 ligament that support the ankle. Anterior talofibular ligament that runs from the
fibula to the neck of the talus. Posterior talofibular ligament that runs from the fibula to the
surface of the talus. Calcaneal fibular ligament runs from the calcaneus to the fibula. Deltoid ligament is a broad ligament that runs from the tibia to the talus. LOOK AT DIAGRAMS
d. The shoulder joint is typically referred to the glenohumeral joint, a ball and socket joint
designed for more for mobility than for stability. The stability of the joint is held by 3 sets of
ligament and 4 sets of muscle on the anterior side. There is no major muscle or ligaments are
associated with the inferior side.
a. The shoulder joint have various movements like abduction, adduction, flexion, extension,
horizontal extension, horizontal flexion.
b. The elbow joint have movemenst like flexion, extension, pronation (palm down) and
supination (palm up).
c. The wrist joint have movements like flexion and extension.
d. The trunk have movements like flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation.
e. The hip joint have movements like flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction.
f. The knee joint have movements like flexion and extension.
g. The ankle joint have movements like plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, and eversion. -Fibrous joints are consist of two bones that are united by fibrous tissues that have no
movement for example the skull.
-Cartilaginous joints two bones united by cartilage that have some movements for example the
-Synovial joints are most of the joints in the body that are surrounded by a capsule of dense
fibrous connective tissues for example shoulder joint. Inside the joint, the capsule is lined with
synovial membrane which forms a thin lubrication film which covers the surface of the joint.
The shoulder was met for more motion than the hips. The shoulder joint is not as stable because
the ball in socket is not as deep as the hips also