KINS 2295 Lecture Notes - Body Water, Sarcopenia, Ct Scan
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The criticisms of height-weight tables
1) tables do not consider body composition
2) Most data come from white, middle class US adults age 25-29. Does not represent general North
3) No accepted method has been devised to determine frame size.
How to measure body volume
Under water weighing, volumetry, air-displacement plethymography
Density of nonfat compartments varies as function of age sex and racial groups. Conclusion-
densitometry should not be used as a universal criterion for prediction of percent fat. Equations on four
component models are preferred over equations based on a two component model.
BMI(body mass index) and its criticism?
Used as an indicator for obesity. Mass (kg)/height(m)^2
Criticism: BMI does not take body composition into account
Hip to waist ratio
Waist circumference to hip ratio is a better predictor of obesity related health risk than BMI
What is rationale?
The relationship exists between fat located in the depots directly under the skin and internal body fat
and body density.
Two ways to use fat folds
1.) Use sum of number of skinfolds as an indication of relative fatness among indivuals
2.) Use fatfolds in conjuction with equations or tables to predict percent body fat
What are the assumptions in using skinfolds measurements to predict percent fat?
1.) Constant densities in two compartment model
2.) Proper identification of measurement site and proper measurement technique
3.) Constant compressibility of skinfold
4.) Fixed adipose tissue patterning
5.) Fixed proportion of internal and external fat
error approx of skinfold measurements: 3-4%
Indicators used by Canadian physical activity, fitness and lifestyle appraisal?
1.) BMI- is subject over weight?
2.) Sum of 5 skinfolds
3.) Waist girth
What is the O-scale system?
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