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Lecture 3

PSYC 105 Lecture 3: Psychology 14 -16. notes for Final

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MacEwan University
PSYC 105

Psychology 14-16 6.3.2017 Black Friday 2016 USA vs. Canada Chapter 14 Personality: Who We Are Personality  the way you act roughly 80% of the time and in the 80% of the situations they are in • People’s typical way of thinking, feeling, and behaving • These traits account in part for consistencies in our behaviour across time and situations • These traits are kinda responsible for guiding us • We are following social scripts  being more polite in Canada compared to USA • Nomothetic (society) vs. idiographic (individual) approaches to studying personality • Often, nomothetic approaches are quantitative (questionnaire and give it to 100 peoplle etc.) , and idiographic approaches are qualitative (interview and transcript your interview and look for common themes.) • Often use qualitative when you are trying to study something that hasn’t really been studied before, Causes of Personality (nature vs. nurture) • Behaviour-genetic methods attempt to disentangle the effects of o Genetic factors ▪ We are very careful when we say that there is a genetic component…. Usually you can take active measures to prevent things happening o Shared environmental factors ▪ All in live in Canada o Nonshared environmental factors ▪ East coast vs. Alberta • Use twin and adoption studies to do this • Numerous personality traits are influences by genetics – but all much below a 1.0 correlation (does not mean that they are causing) o Demonstrates non-shared environmental influence • Turns out that shared environment plays little to no role in adult personality o Supported by twin and adoption studies o By the time we are adults our personalities are fairly stable so it doesn’t really matter really where we are live Birth Order • Most research has failed to find link between personality and order of birth • Typically first borns are more achieving than the younger • One possible exception is acceptance of radical scientific ideas • Later borns were more accepting A note of Caution • Remember, genes code for proteins, not specific behaviours • Genes influence who we are but they do not make us act a certain way • Genes have indirect influence on traits, while the environment influences how these are displayed in our lives • Twin studies vs. molecular genetic studies Sigmund Freud • Viennese neurologist who developed first comprehensive theory of personality • Was the first person to come up with a fully working model of the human mind Psychoanalytic Theory • Developed by Sigmund Freud, rests on three primary assumptions a. Psychic determinism i. Psychological events have a cause. Dreams, neurotic symptoms and “Freudian slips” of the tongue ii. You did something meant to do it consciously or unconsciously b. Symbolic meaning 1 i. No action, no matter how seemingly trivial, is meaningless c. Unconscious motivation i. We rarely understand why we do what we do, although we quite readily cook up explanations for our actions after the fact ii. Nothing is an accident Structure of Personality • Freud thought that the psyche consisted of three components o Id – basic instincts, operates on pleasure principle o Ego – principal decision maker o Superego – sense of morality • Conflict between these causes distress o The two major players are the Superego and the Id ▪ How do you balance those two? That is the ego’s job Psychoanalytic Theory  Freud was influenced by Dr. Memsimer in his early days didn’t like that people could inplant fake memories into people during trance like states • Freud thought that our dreams reflected this unconscious struggle • Said all dreams reflected wish fulfillments but that some were in disguise • Contrary to pop psych, did not say that all symbols mean the same to everyone Anxiety and Defense Mechanisms • The ego will try to minimize anxiety via defense mechanisms (if the superego and the id are going at it) • Although essential for psychological health, Freud thought over reliance on one or two could cause problems Defense Mechanism Examples • Repression – motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories or impulses • Essentially we want to repress things we don’t like • Imagine if you did that for 40 years over a very traumatic event. • It is there but we don’t talk about it… skeleton in the closet • Denial – motivated forgetting of distressing experiences • Denial just means that it doesn’t exist • Projection – unconscious attribution of our negative qualities onto others • American Beauty is a good example of this Stages of Psychosexual Development • Freud believed that we pass through stages, each of which is focused on an erogenous zone • Insisted that sexuality begins in infancy • Individuals who get fixated on a stage and have difficulty moving on Evaluated Scientifically • Very influential in thinking about personality, but there are major criticisms o Unfalsifiable ▪ Can’t run it in a lab o Failed predictions ▪ Took a bunch of people who experienced the same things growing up and didn’t see the same thing in them when they were older o Questionable conception of unconscious o Unrepresentative samples o Emphasis on shared environment Neo-Freudians • Differ from Freud’s theories in two key ways o Less emphasis on sexuality, more on social drives o More optimistic about personal growth 2 • Adler’s style of life and inferiority complex • Jung’s collective unconscious and archetypes Behavioural Approaches • Argue that differences in our personalities stem largely from our learning histories • Personalities are bundles of habits acquired by classical and operant conditioning • View personality as under the control of genetic factors and contingencies Social learning theories • Saw learning as important, but argue thinking plays a crucial role as well • Emphasize reciprocal determinism rather than Skinnerian determinism • Focus on observational learning and individuals’ locus of control Evaluated Scientifically • Placed psychology on firmer scientific footing • However… o Radical behaviourists’ ignoring of cognition is not supported by research o Social learning’s emphasis on shared environment is not supported Carl Rogers • Rejected notion of determinism and embraced free will • Proposed self-actualization as core motive in personality Roger’s Model • Three major components of personality: 1. The organism (innate, genetic blueprint) 2. The self (set of beliefs about who we are) 3. Conditions of worth (expectations we place on ourselves – can result in incongruence) Self- Actualization • Maslow said that these people tend to be creative, spontaneous, and accepting of themselves and others • Can come off as difficult to work with or aloof • Prone to peak experiences Evaluated Scientifically • Comparative psychology challenges Rogers’ claim that our nature is entirely positive • Rogers’ and Maslow’s research was fraught with methodological difficulties • Many non-falsifiable assumptions Trait Models • Interested primarily in describing and understanding the structure of personality • Used factor analysis to reduce diversity of personality descriptors to underlying traits • Five traits have repeatedly appeared in such studies Big Five Model • Uncovered using a lexical approach • Openness to Experience • Conscientiousness • Extraversion • Agreeableness • Neuroticism Big Five and Behaviour • Predict many important real-world behaviours o Job performance and grades in school o Physical health and life span • Relatively similar traits seen across cultures, but different prevalence rates o Individualist vs. collectivistic societies Tendencies vs. Adaptations • Basic tendencies are underlying personality traits • Characteristic adaptations are their behavioural manifestations • Same trait can manifest in very different ways o Sensation seeking in firefighters and criminals Can Personality Change? 3 • Some variability prior to age 30, but little thereafter • Some evidence for changing of personality psychopharmacologically, but should we? Evaluated Scientifically • Mischel’s argument concerning behavioural inconsistency • Response was that traits are predictors of aggregate, not isolated behaviours • Primarily describe individual differences rather than what causes them Personality Assessment • Plagued by number of dubious methods o Phrenology (head shape) o Physiognomy (facial characteristics) o Sheldon’s body types • All lacked two key criteria – reliability and validity Structured Personality Tests • Paper-and-pencil tests consisting of questions you respond to in one of a few fixed ways • The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is most researched test o 567 true-false questions o 10 basic scales MMPI • Developed using empirical method of test construction, so it has low face validity • Contains three validity scales designed to detect various types of distorted responses o L (Lie) detects impression management o F (Frequency) detects malingering o K (Correction) measures defensive responding MMPI Evaluated Scientifically • Most scales are both reliable as well as valid for differentiating among mental disorders • Problematic in several ways o Redundant scales o Not used for formal diagnosis o Scales can be misused Rational/ Theoretical Method • Requires test developers to begin with a clear-cut conceptualization of a trait and then write items to assess it • Some have strong reliability and validity (NEO PI-R) but others do not (Myers-Briggs) 13.3.2017 Projective Tests • Ask examinees to interpret or make sense of ambiguous stimuli • Based on projective hypothesis o When interpreting ambiguous stimuli, people project aspects of their personality • Controversial, because reliability and validity are in dispute Rorschach Inkblot Test • Consists of ten symmetrical inkblots, five in black-and-white and five containing colour • Examiners ask respondents to look at each inkblot and say what it resembles • This supposedly tells you about personality traits of the respondent Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) • Series of pictures in black and white.. tell me the story of what is happening in the picture • Requires subject to construct a story based on pictures • Little evidence for adequate reliability or validity for most applications o Because everyone will see something a little different although you will see patterns Other Projective Tests  don’t really use them for analysis but it gets people going • Human figure drawings require you to draw a person(s) in any way you wish • Graphology – analysis of handwriting – is another projective test • Neither has scientific support for its use and claims Pitfalls in Personality Assessment • The PT Barnum effect and the tendency to accept high base rate descriptors as accurate 4 o Astrology and tarot readings • Overall, personality assessment can be useful, but only if using valid, reliable instruments Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders  When adaptation breaks down • 25% of Canadians will at some point in their life will have a psychological disorder What is Mental Illness? • It affects how you think and live life • It has to have a severe affect on your daily life. • Psychopathology (mental illness) is often seen as a failure of adaptation to the environment • Failure analysis approach tries to understand MI by examining breakdowns in functioning • Mental disorder does not have a clear cut definition • Many different conceptions of MI, each with pros and cons o Statistical rarity ▪ Most people have some symptoms of a MI… trying to figure out when it becomes a problem o Subjective distress o Impairment o Societal disapproval o Biological dysfunction ▪ Different nereo- transmitters in your brain Historical Conceptions of MI 15.3.2017 What is abnormal psychology • “Abnormal psychology is the brank of the science of psychology that addresses the description, causes, and treatment of abnormal behaviours and patterns How do we define abnormal behaviour? • We need to ask: o IS the behaviour unusual? o Does the behaviour violate social norms? o Does the behaviour involve a faulty interpretation of reality? ▪ Delusions, hallucinations ▪ Perception or interpretation of reality is faulty • Ex. Paranoia – The teacher is out to get me. • Is it paranoia if I am out to get you? o (paranoid—having irrational suspicious) ▪ people with clinically depression often have hallucinations • When they lay in bed they feel like they can’t move and their body is rotting around them o Does the behaviour cause personal distress? o Is the behaviour maladaptive? o Is the behaviour dangerous (to the person or to others)? What factors affect our perception of what is abnormal? • Culture o Behaviour considered normal in one culture may be deemed abnormal in another. For example, anxiety and depression o We need to consider how people in different cultures experience states of emotional distress, including depression and anxiety • Context o Is this abnormal? o Does it deviate from social norms? o That depends on where and when the behaviour and attire occur How common are psychological disorders? • Anxiety disorders: o Affects almost 30% of adults in their lifetime • Mood disorders: o Affects over 20% of adults in their lifetime 5 • Substance Abuse Disorders: o Affects almost 15% of adults in their lifetime • Any Disorder: o Affects over 46% of adults in their lifetime What are the risk factors for developing a psychological disorder? • Exposure to just two factors can engender a fourfold increase in adverse outcomes • Exposure to four or more risk factors can lead to a tenfold increase How have we historically viewed abnormal behaviour? • Medieval Times o Exorcism • Witchcraft o Malleus Maleficarum o Demonological model o Not universally held Historical Conceptions of MI  started in Greece • Greece  you had balance called humour… if your lack humour you were out of balance which is thought of the cause of mental illness • During Middle Ages, mental illnesses were often viewed through a demonic model • The only people who could read and write were basically just the monks • Odd behaviours were the result of evil spirits inhabiting the body • Exorcisms and witch hunts were common during this time • During Renaissance, the medical model saw MI as a physical disorder needing treatment • Began housing people in asylums – but they were often overcrowded and understaffed  people also were treated as attractions to make bank • Treatments were no better than before (bloodletting and snake pits) • Reformers like Phillippe Pinel and Dorothea Dix pushed for moral treatment • Treated patients with dignity, respect, and kindness • Still no effective treatments, though, so many continued to suffer with no relief • A lot of them got better once they were unlocked from beds and allowed to walk around and have interactions Modern Era • In early 1950s, a drug was developed called chlorpromazine (Thorazine) • Effecting you brain • Found that when they gave this drug people mellowed out • In the 1950s there were more people in mental hospitals than normal hospitals • Moderately decreased symptoms of schizophrenia and similar problems • With advent of other medications, policy of deinstitutionalization was enacted • Don’t have those same asylums that we use to have • Not a whole lot of room for mental health in Alberta • Alberta health services  1% of their annual budget goes to mental health. • Deinstitutionalization had mixed results • Some patients returned to almost normal lives but tens of thousands had no follow-up care and went off medications • Community mental health centres and halfway houses attempt to help this problem Diagnosis across Cultures • Certain conditions are culture-bound • Koro involves believing your genitals are shrinking and receding into your abdomen • Amok is marked by episodes of intense sadness and brooding followed by uncontrolled behaviour and violence • Taijin kyofushu is a fear of offending others by saying something offensive or body odour • Many severe mental disorders (schizophrenia, alcoholism, psychopathy) appear to be universal across cultures • They are dealt and recognized differently in different cultures Misconceptions • Psychiatric diagnosis is nothing more than pigeonholing 6 o They are trying to use a common language • Psychiatric diagnoses are unreliable o When making a diagnoses is a lot on the language a client uses • Psychiatric diagnoses are invalid • Psychiatric diagnoses stigmatize people o Don’t try to stigmatize people. It largely the rest of the population The DSM-5 • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a system that contains the criteria for mental disorders • Currently on fifth edition, DSM-5 • Has 18 different classes of disorders • Breaks down different disorders and list their characteristics • Contains diagnostic criteria and decision rules for each condition • Warns to “think organic” (rule out physical causes of symptoms first) • Look at medical background too • What is their functioning like • Need • Contains information on prevalence DSM Criticisms • Not all diagnoses meet Robins and Guze criteria for validity (Mathematics Disorder) • Not all criteria and decisions rules are based on scientific data • High level of comorbidity • Each mental illness can have another mental illness that usually accompanies it. • Men with depression they drink a lot… Alcohol becomes that Band-Aid • The biggest problem you can only work with what you are given • Reliance on categorical rather than dimensional model of psychopathology 17.3.2017 Mental Illness and the Law • The majority of people with schizophrenia are not aggressive or violent • Insanity defense requires people to not know: o What they were doing at time of crime o What they were doing was wrong • Less than 1% of criminal cases use this successfully • Can only be committed against their will if o Pose a clear and present threat to themselves or others o Are so impaired they can’t care for themselves • Involuntary commitment is a procedure for protecting us from certain people with mental disorders and protecting them from themselves Anxiety Disorders • Most anxieties are transient and can be adaptive • They can also become excessive and inappropriate • One of the most prevalent and earliest onset of all classes of disorders • Inappropriate anxiety exists in other disorders and problems • Somatic symptom disorders are physical symptoms with psychological origins • Illness anxiety disorder is a preoccupation that you have a serious disease despite no evidence Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Continual feelings of worry, anxiety, physical tension, and irritability about many areas • About 3% of the population; 1/3 develop it after major stressor or life change • More prevalent in females and Caucasians 20.3.2017 Panic Disorder • Repeated, unexpected panic attacks, along with either o Persistent concerns about future attacks o A change in personal behaviour in an attempt to avoid them • Can be associated with specific situation or come “out of the blue” 7 Phobias • Have them to keep up alive • Intense fear of an object or situation that’s greatly out of proportion to its actual threat o Most common anxiety disorder (11%) o Comes in different forms ▪ Agoraphobia • Fear of market place • Fine line between anxiety and agoraphobia is the fear of being judged ( anxiety) while agoraphobia is just don’t like people ▪ Specific or social phobia Posttraumatic Stress Disorder • Marked emotional disturbance after you experience or witness a severely stressful event • Symptoms include: ▪ Flashbacks and recurrent dreams ▪ Avoiding reminders of the trauma ▪ Increased physiological arousal • Not everyone is convinced that it exists • Some people claim that they are experiencing their friends PTSD • People’s systems that are highly highly sensitive Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder • Marked by obsessions - persistent ideas, thoughts, or impulses that are unwanted and inappropriate and cause marked distress • Behaviouralists view this as negative reinforcement • This distress is relieved by compulsions – repetitive behaviours or mental acts • Must spend at least 1 hour per day engaging in obsessions, compulsions, or both Explanations for Anxiety Disorders • Learning models focus on acquiring fears via classical conditioning, then maintaining them through operant conditioning • Can also learn fears by observing others or by hearing misinformation from others • Anxious people tend to think about the world in different ways from non-anxious people • Tend to see more danger and ask more what ifs • Catastrophic thinking - predicting terrible events despite low probability • Anxiety sensitivity – a fear of anxiety-related symptoms • Can be sensitive to their own reactions • Many are genetically influenced through level of neuroticism • A malfunction of the caudate nucleus in people with OCD • Genetic relationship between OCD and Tourette’s Disorder • Does the behaviour change the brain or does the brain change the behaviour? Mood Disorders • Over 20% of North Americans will experience a mood disorder • Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the most common, at 16% • Depression is called the common cold because it is common • More prevalent in females, most likely to develop in 30s • Depression symptoms can develop gradually or suddenly, but are often recurrent • Average episode lasts 6 months to 1 year, most people experience 5-6 episodes • Can cause extreme functional impairment across all areas • There is also a theory that Major Depressive Disorder doesn’t actually exist it is just Bipolar Disorder and they haven’t experienced the mania yet • Sample MDD Symptoms • Feeling blue or irritable • Sleep difficulties • Fatigue and loss of energy • Weight changes • Thoughts of death or suicide Explanations of MDD 8 • Complex interplay of biological, psychological, and social influences • Life events such as loss of something that is dearly valued can set stage for depression • Depression can create interpersonal problems, which cause lack of social support • This can work both ways • Never meet anyone with Depression with a perfect life • Behavioural model - depression results from a low rate of positive reinforcement in the environment • People with depression are very unlikely to reward themselves • Beck’s cognitive model - depression is caused by negative beliefs and expectations • Cognitive triad, negative schemas, cognitive distortions • Negative view of themselves, Negative view of the world and Negative view of the future • Learned helplessness - tendency to feel helpless in the face of events we can’t control (Behaviorists) • People with depression attribute failure internally and have global, stable attributions • Depressed people often put things on themselves…. They only did the well on the test because it was an easy test… they still are dumb… and it isn’t just psych 105 but all my classes (Global, internal, stable) • What caused this? • Global (General) vs. Specific • Internal vs. External • Stable vs. unstable • Genes exert a moderate influence on MDD; role of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine • Our behaviors will change our brain chemistries • People with depression have low levels of serotonin • Never once think that it is mere biological Side note: people with depression are obsessed with social media… they are glued to their phone 3 ways to measure behaviour • Frequency • Intensity • Duration 22.3.2017 As Good As it Gets – I got you know whose at my table YouTube Bipolar Disorder • Have both depressive and manic episodes • Elevated mood, lowered need for sleep, high energy, talkativeness, inflated self-esteem • Also show highly irresponsible behavior • A lot of people like mania and this is why a lot of people don’t like to take their med cause it is like being stoned for a week • Equally common in men and women • Produces serious problems in social and occupational realms • Very heavily genetically influenced, but stressful life events can cause episode onset • These can be negative or positive events Suicide • MDD and bipolar disorder are at higher risk for suicide than most disorders • 11th leading cause of death in Canada and US (3rd for children and adolescents) • Prediction is difficult due to lack of research and low base rates • People who are successful… Have a feeling of being a very larger burden on people Personality Disorders 9 • Should only be diagnosed when o Personality traits first appear by adolescence o Traits are inflexible, stable, and expressed in a wide variety of situations o Traits lead to distress or impairment • They really have to be in the red zone to be diagnosed as this Borderline Personality Disorder • They love you they hate you. • Mainly women, about 2% of population • It is diagnosed MORE in women often times in men it is overlooked • Marked by instability in mood, identity, and impulse control, often highly self-destructive • Sounds like ADHD …. Men are more diagnosed with ADHD • People with borderline have patterns • In sociobiological model, individuals with BPD overreact to stress and experience lifelong difficulties with regulating their emotions • If it isn’t treated and regulated then it will be lifelong • The kid who is borderline probably has indulgent parents 24.3.2017 Psychopathic Personality (not a psychotic personality disorder) • Condition marked by superficial charm, dishonesty, manipulativeness, self-centeredness, and risk taking, they have no qualms taking away other peoples ideas and getting their promotions • Overlaps with antisocial personality disorder • Primarily males, about 25% of the prison population qualifies • Probably don’t recognize it as much in women • They are often at the top of the corporate ladder • Pretty much every one who is diagnosed with this has anti-social personality disorder… however not everyone with
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