BIOL 111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Genetic Diversity, Catabolism, Neotropical Realm

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22 Jul 2016
05/10/10 2:23 AM
Pre-Lecture Vocabulary
Cell wall – A relatively rigid structure that encloses cells of plants, fungi, many protists, and most
prokaryotes. Gives these cells their shape and limits their expansion in hypotonic media
Membrane-enclosed organelle – Organized structures found in or on eukaryotic cells. Examples
include ribosomes, nuclei, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus
Nucleus – The centrally located compartment of eukaryotic cells that is bounded by a double
membrane and contains the chromosomes
Cytoskeleton – the network of microtubules and microfilaments that gives a eukaryotic cell its shape
and its capacity to arrange its organelles and to move
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) – an energy storage compound containing adenine, ribose and three
phosphate groups. When it is formed from ADP, useful energy is stored; when it is broken down (to
ADP or AMP), energy is released to drive endergonic reactions.
Cellular respiration – the catabolic pathways by which electrons are removed from various molecules
and passed through intermediate electron carriers to O2, generating H2O and releasing energy
Taxon a biological group (specifically a species or a clade) that is given a name
Glycolysis The enzymatic breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid. One of the evolutionary oldest of
the cellular energy-yielding mechanisms.
Lecture Notes
Lecture Outline
Diversity of life
o What is diversity
o How is diversity measured
o Which groups show the greatest diversity
o Prokaryotes vs eukaryotes
o Cell structure and morphology
o 3 challenges of life
What is diversity?
Diversity in life (degree of difference in: )
o Genetic variation (within a species?)
o Species composition (within a community)
o Interactions within and between ecosystems
Biodiversity (more diverse = healthier)
Species diversity
o This is commonly reserved for indices that measure both the number of species in a habitat as
well as their relative abundance
We have no idea how many species of life exist today – can’t estimate the diversity of prokaryotes
Prokaryotes first appeared in the Precambrian era
3-100 million extant eukaryotic species
Bacteria and Archaea’s numbers are completely unknown
~99% of all species are extinct
Most species live in the tropics (Neotropics – brazil, etc)
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