CHEM 180 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Low-Density Lipoprotein, Oatmeal, Margarine

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21 Jul 2016
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"!fat!in!“Omega!3!eggs”!is!actually!alpha"linolenic!acid!which!is!converted!to!fish!oil!
! "!the!amount!omega!3!we!would!get!in!eggs!is!insignificant!!
Video!4!
"!nuts!lower!cholesterol!
"!Nurse$Health$Study!!those!who!ate!nuts!had!lower!incidence!of!coronary!heart!disease!
"!another!study!!!frequency!of!nut!consumption!was!inversely!associated!with!total!&!cause"specific!mortality!
"!certain!margarines!fortified!with!substances!that!lower$cholesterol,!like!sitostenol!
! "!need!to!eat!a!lot!of!it!to!have!an!effect!
! "!3!grams!(2tbsp!margarine)!of!sitostenol!daily!can!reduce!cholesterol!by!10"15%!
! "!25!grams!of!soy!protein!a!day!will!lower!cholesterol,!but!soy!has!lots!of!estrogenic!isoflavones!
"!!oat!bran!contains!soluble!fibre!beta"glucan!which!can!lower!cholesterol!
! "!but!need!to!eat!3!grams!per!day!=!1!cup!oat!bran,!1!cup!cooked!oatmeal,!or!5!servings!cheerios!
"!bile!acids!are!secreted!to!break!down!fats!
"!body!makes!bile!acids!from!cholesterol!&!bile!acids!are!reabsorbed!into!blood!stream,!&!recycled!
"!beta$glucan!ties!up!bile!acids!which!are!excreted,!which!forced!more!bile!acids!to!be!made!
"!since!cholesterol!is!the!starting!material,!blood!cholesterol!is!lowered!
"!Dr.!Dean!Ornish!!!“diet!to!save!your!heart”!
! "!put!patients!at!risk!for!heart!disease!on!very$low$fat!diet!(less!than!7%!calories!from!fat)!
! "!there!was!a!reduction!in!deposits!in!arteries!!
! "!but!didn’t!only!use!diet!in!study;!used!exercise,!group!therapy!
! "!likely!not!due!to!the!reduced!saturated!fat!in!diet!
"!China$study!!!avoiding!meat,!oil,!fish,!poultry,!dairy;!eating!unprocessed!grains,!legumes,!veggies!&!fruits!reduces!risk!of!
heart!disease!bc!it!reduces!cholesterol!!
!!!this!really!hasn’t!been!proven!
"!statin$drugs!reduce!the!risk!of!heart!disease,!but!what!are!the!mechanisms?!
! "!it!may!be!independent!of!cholesterol!effects!&!due!to!anti"inflammatory!effects!
"!saturated$fats!raise!mostly!the!benign,$large$particle$LDL$
"!switching!to!a!diet!that!reduces!saturated!fat!&!increases!carbs!may!reduce!total!LDL,!but!increase!small!particle!LDL!!
"!low!fat!diets!tend!to!be!higher!in!carbs!
"!can!reduce!HDL!especially!if!too!many!high!glycemic!foods!are!eaten!
! "!glucose!has!glycemic!index!of!100!
! "!high!GI!foods!include!baked!potato!(111),!corn!flakes!(93),!white!rice!(87),!white!baguette!(70)!
"!carbs$reduce$fatty$acids$being$used$as$fuel!so!triglycerides!increase!
! "!decrease!HDL!cholesterol;!lead!to!increase!in!small!particle!LDL!
! "!eating!carbs!reduces!amount!of!fat!the!body!will!use!as!fuel!bc!instead!the!body!will!use!simple!carbs!
! "!so!sugar!may!be!a!significant!culprit!
"!the!Swedish$Council$on$Health$Technology$Assessment!recommended!national!change!in!dietary!advice!with!guidelines!
based!on!low!carb!high!fat!nutrition!
! "!reduce!sugar!&!starch!to!achieve!healthy$insulin$levels,!blood$lipids$&$good$cholesterol!
! "!reduce!sugar,!potato,!pasta,!rice,!wheat!flour,!bread!
! "!embrace!olive!oil,!nuts,!butter,!full!fat!cream,!oily!fish,!fattier!meat!cuts!
"!no!clear!cut!conclusions!except:!1)!statins!reduce!risk!of!heart!disease!in!those!at!risk!
!2)!we!should!stay!away!from!refined!carbs!like!sugar!
!3)!not!all!saturated!fats!are!bad;!stearic!acid!doesn’t!affect!heart!disease!rates!
Video!5!
"!there!are!17!“daggers”!of!arterial!disease!!!high!insulin,!low!vitamin!B,!bad!omega3/6!ratio!etc!
"!Ancel!Keys!was!right!when!he!talked!about!the!Mediterranean!diet!in!Crete!
"!Dr.!Schwarz!recommends!Harvard’s$Healthy$Eating$Plate!!!evidence!from!studies!
! "!protein!based!on!fish,!poultry,!beans,!minimizing!red!&!processed!meat!
! "!use!good!omega3/6!ratio!
! "!no!excessive!dairy!
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