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Lecture 10

Introduction to Animals (Sponges) (Lecture 10)

6 Pages

Biology (Sci)
Course Code
BIOL 111
Irene Gregory- Eaves

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Biology Lecture 10: Introduction to Animals (Sponges) Negin Arbabi Pre-lecture Vocabulary:  Motile: able to move from one place to another  Sessile: (contrast with motile) permanently attached; not able to move from one place to another  Tissues: a group of similar cells organized into a functional unit; usually integrated with other tissues to form part of an organ  Hermaphroditic: the coexistence of both female and male sex organs in the same organism  Somatic: of or relating to the soma (the parts of an organism other than the reproductive cells)  Somatic cell: all the cells of the body that are not specialized for reproduction  Larvae: an immature stage of any animal that differs dramatically in appearance from the adult Defining Animals Characteristics of an Animal 1. Eukaryotic  “true” nucleus  membrane-bound organelles 2. Heterotrophic (different feeding)  use pre-formed organic materials as energy and carbon source—to synthesize their own compounds  modes of feeding (attaining food): - predators: eating other animals for energy - herbivores: eating plants - filter feeders: organism that feeds on organisms much smaller than itself that are suspended in water or air by means of a straining device - parasites: - detritivores: eating detritus (dead or decomposing matter) - omnivore: both plant and animal matter  most have internal digestion: - most use internal processes to break down food (as opposed to fungi, who rely on external digestion) - most have an internal gut that is continuous with the outside environment and permits internal digestion of food items - most animals have a gut  prokaryotes, protists and fungi also have heterotrophic members 3. Multicellularity  Having multiple cells means: - cells can become specialized to carry out specific functions - organisms can grow in size - diffusion:  if you have one large cell you have a diffusion problem (can’t support more growth) because you have a low surface area to volume ratio  materials can diffuse throughout smaller cells more quickly 4. No cell walls  Types of structural support: - hydrostatic skeleton  muscles contract against fluid-filled cavity - exoskeleton (exo=external)  nonliving covering that does not grow with animal  ecdysozoans: molting animals - endoskeleton (endo=internal)  internal support  vertebrates (living tissue)  some invertebrates (nonliving, CaCO ) 3 5. Motile at some life stage  movement reduces competition, enhance genetic diversity 6. Somatic (body) cells are diploid (2n) 7. Animals are diplontic (diplontic life cycle) Tissues  most animals have tissues  functional units: - muscular - nervous
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