Class Notes (835,495)
Canada (509,212)
EDEC 247 (34)


20 Pages
Unlock Document

Curriculum and Instruction
EDEC 247
Tino Bordonaro

September 5th The French arrive in QC (mostly interior part) Economics:  Fish, fur and farming attracted Europeans Religion:  Two religions trying to dominate the area (catholic French and protestant English)  Created a division between people (problem in new and old world)  Only extremely devoted catholics (French) were allowed to travel to the new world  England sent those whom were unhappy with the old world. These were mostly extremely pure protestants (puritans)  Two extremely devoted groups were entering the same new world.  Influenced the education system until 1997 (when religion was replaced by language)  Up until 2008, QC schools had official religious status (catholic or protestant) Education (In New France)  Was more private–administered by the Church (not the public)  First schools established in New France were seminaries  Church controlled education until 1964  Limited in purpose–was meant to train priests  Began to change after the conquest (1760) o New France became british colony o Education practically ceased to exist–was not a priority to the state–local issue. o The English became the government, administrators and leaders. o The French resorted to what they knew well and had the opportunity to do, they turned to the land and what was left of the church. o British promised not to deport the French. Politics:  Geo and social-political The Quebec Act:  The American revolution and War of Independence  To please others, the British gave the ohio valley to the French and took it away from the natives–this created the Quebec Act  Catholic church was allowed to return in 1774  Allowed the church to establish to establish a catholic schooling system–which it did eventually. Education in the British Regime:  Constitutional act (1791)  Act for the Establishment of Free schools and advantage of learning (1801) o McGill is a result of this act among many other non French or catholic schools o Established very many protestants English schools and hardly any catholic French schools o Schools under this act were heavily subsidized.  Fabriques Act (1824) o Used to establish French catholic schools o Parish schools–run by parish priests–local and catholic–lacked resources and money o very few local parishes had the resources to open these schools.  Syndics Act (1829) o British provided the resources to the French students but only to be spent on education and nowhere else (commissioners) o People were given responsibilities to manage the finances given o This was the beginning of school boards in QC o This established a number of schools.  The Durham Report (1839) o Recommendations regarding political situation o Recommendations regarding education o Governments response–ended up with a report that could not displease everyone more o 1837-38 rebeliions = failed. Sent a message to the government o The government sent Lord Durham an established British political figure, it was assumed he would make a recommendation in the British’s favor. o Durham tabled his report and it recommended assimilation– angered both sides (british and French) o His logic was “here are a people in an empire that provides the most opportunity to expand and succeed. o Assimilations in education imply one system–he recommended that this system be secular. September 9 , 2013 th Dual-Denominationalism and Confederation The Common School Act (1841)  Creation of Common School Boards - Related to Syndics Act  Divided into small school districts  In every district a common board was established  Common schools were open to all - even if they became religious in culture by law they were open to all. Dissentient schools had the right to reject.  Granted religious minorities the right to dissent (to separate)  To dissent you had to be a religious minority, two specifically at the time (Catholics and Protestants)  If you were another religious minority you had to simply 'fit' into the system  If the religious minority dissented the common school became the opposite religion (Dual-Denomination: if Protestants dissented Catholics became the common school)  Jewish minorities had problems fitting into the system  In peoples best interest to be dissentient schools  Both Catholics and Protestants claimed they were in the minority The Education Act (1846)  Confessional Boards in Urban Areas  Montreal, Quebec and Three Rivers (urban centers)  Created a divide, beginning of two public systems that went their separate ways  Catholic system had to relation to the Protestant system and vise- versa  No governing body  Boards ran the schools  Three types of school boards in Quebec prior to confederation o Common Board – Rural o Dissentient Board – Rural o Confessional Board – Urban  Wanted schools to be religious not common or dissent schools - but they had to accept all students (compromise). Confederation and the BNA Act (1867)  Concept of Canada began in the late 1840's for reasons other than education  Related to Queen Victoria and her liberal husband Albert, he persuaded the Queen to be more liberal.  Britain no longer favored its colonies  Because we no longer had Britain’s preferential treatment we turned to the U.S who were in the midst of a civil war.  Then US no longer preferred Quebec due to their placement in the Civil War  We created a central government mostly for economic matters  Provincial government for schools  It was known before confederation that education would become a provincial responsibility Section 93 of the BNA Act - Education Clause 1 article with 4 sub-sections  Education is a provincial responsibility  Zero federal systems for Education  10 Education systems  A religious minority with educational rights will have those rights constitutionally protected  If a board is recognised as religious then it will be constitutionally protected - meant that the system established in 1841/1846 was set in stone. Could not be reformed or changed.  System lasted over 50 years as religious minorities were constitutionally protected  Implications were that this province had dual denominationalism  Protestants were concerned as they were in the minority  Decided to constitutional rights held by religious monitories -- makes it difficult to change law (only changes conservatively and slowly) September 12 , 2013 th Differences between catholic and protestant schools:  Religion  Language (French- catholic and English- protestant)  Orientation o Catholic schools were more classical, traditional and religious o Protestant schools were more modern, less religious, more decentralized and more progressive o First acts of protestant movement:  They no longer recognized the Pope–turned toward the bible instead  The catholics centered books in order to avoid the bible.   Structure o protestants – students in elementary for 7 years, 4 years of high school -> university (prepared for all faculties) o catholic – students in elementary for 7 years, 8 years of classical college -> 2 cycles of 4 years -> university afterwards (prepare students to enter law/medicine/philosophy  immigrants were attracted to English protestant system because of language, orientation, structure (courses offered etc) o language only made a difference if you were ambitious as English was the language of business, opportunity = more opportunities. Irish Immigrants:  Catholic when they arrived which attracted them to the catholic schools. Became bilingual (French in school, English at home)  Irish wanted public English catholic schools (first opened in 1930’s)  Ambition was how they could have reconciled leaving catholic but religion had a stronger attraction Jewish Immigrants:  Conflicts between Jews and Protestants o Attracted to English more so than French o Attracted to less intense religious schools (they had their own religion- did not want to adopt a new one) o Attracted to better structure. o In protestant schools, as immigration continued, there were more jews than protestants in many protestant schools o Jews began to teach in protestant schools–wanted to advance careers and began to apply for administrative positions o Protestants refused to allow them on the board. Did not want the Jewish individuals to administer because they wanted a protestant system to remain intact and run by protestants. o This lead to protests… began to cause big lots of problems. o As a property holder, you got to decided whether you wanted your school taxes to go to protestant or catholic. o This issue forced/pressured the government to amend the Education Act (1903)  Jews shall be regarded as protestants (unpopular law)  Jewish community hired lawyers to take the government to court re this Education Act and to take school board to course re: admin positions.  This did not change until 1928. Hirsch Case (1928) _ cannot regard Jews as protestants when in protestant schools. Jews are Jews. However, they could not force protestant school boards to give members of Jewish community admin positions. Jewish community was not happy -> This divided them into two camps  1 camp = continued to fight injustice  1 camp= established Jewish day schools (private) where they charged for tuition but had no constitutional protection Lessons learned from Hirsch Case:  Protestant schools/admins recognized their wrongful ways = began to offer admin positions to Jewish community (10 years after Hirsch case) o Many reasons why this could have occurred th  Experienced growing pains in 20 century September 17 th Quiet revolution is not viewed as historic. It is the beginning of the contemporary system that changed in the 1960’s. Social Situation prior to Quiet Revolution:  Maurice Duplesse – very talented orator. Conservative and traditional nationalist. He believed that to preserve French culture/religion they would have to maintain the French way of life (as it had been the last 200 years)  Rene Leveque (50’s-80’s) – post 60’s nationalist – wanted to separate QC from Canada  Duplesse wanted to keep Canada out of QC  Duplesse’s views of education: o Education is like alcohol, some people cannot handle it -> he avoided the issue completely as he did not want to offend the Church. Education situation pre Quiet Revolution:  Reasonable retention rates in Canada in the late 1950’s  Compulsory education passed in QC in 1943 -> not done by Duplesse – done by a Liberal Act = Godbout o Extended schooling to women in 1940 o Liberal government got in trouble for this -> Duplese got rejected in 44- late 50’s. No more liberals for a time.  Schooling was geographically undesirable, costly o Not a lot of high schools -> needed to move toward them which made education very inaccessible. Education did not appeal to average French Canadian because of this and many other reasons (inaccessible, structure, compulsory schooling, underlying philosophy toward education)  Compulsory education was never taken out of the books when Duplesse regained power but it was no longer reinforced.  The 1960’s changed Quebec’s value system and structure. Factors leading to Quiet Revolution:  Industrialization o Industry (business, finance) = predominantly English. You could only get ‘dead end’ jobs if you did not speak English as English was the language of opportunity  Urbanization o Started in mid 1800’s – mechanization of farming o Created strong urban centers o Evolution of ideas ->clash of ideas. Concentration of French Canadian people exposed to a revolution of ideas and thus began to make compromises. o Renee Levesque recognized a world outside of Quebec. Used media to explain world to French Canadians o Pierre Trudeau wanted to teach law at U of M but the church said no because he was liberal. Trudeau decided instead to become an activist. o Brother Anonymous (Jean Paul) = wanted to express critical thoughts about the church and how he though Quebec should be, without being recognized. He sent these thoughts in letters to a newspaper. Because he signed the letters with ‘frere’ people read it as it ‘came from the church’. When Jean Paul was discovered, he was sent to Rome for re-education.  The Emergence of a New Value System: o See comparison chart  Preliminary changes in the Education system: o Election of Jean Lesage and the Liberals (1960) o Made the Magna Charta of Education (1961)  Compulsory schooling until age 15 (actually enforced)  Secondary school fees abolished  Free textbooks in public schools  All schools boards had to offer public secondary education  More government spending on education  All parents permitted to vote on school board elections  Parent commission ** Direction education was moving in was very important. These were quick fix laws and were not that drastic. But the intent was there!** September 19 , 2013 th Establishment of the MEQ:  The Parent Commission made many recommendations–most of which became educational policies  Establishment of a Ministere de l’Education du Quebec (MEQ) o Powerful already and only about to increase its size and influence o For the 1 time, we had one institution governing education o Unified governing body o Centralized power and standardized policy–necessary first step. o A body to execute the provincial laws o First minister of education = Paul Jerine Lajoie  Commission of public instruction th o Established early on in the 19 century–divided into catholic and protestant. It was replaced by the MEQ o Bill 60 (1964) Structural Reforms:  A standard and uniformed structure A reformed pedagogy:  Child centered education–applied to both elementary and secondary level but was the focus of the elementary level. o Most significant change at secondary level was accessibility  From teacher centered to student centered  Very difficult to implement  Question of emphasis–emphasizing the student  Teachers not only had to know subject but also how students lears  Increase of teacher competence Increased accessibility -> Operation 55  Public secondary school required
More Less

Related notes for EDEC 247

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.