GEOG 205 Lecture Notes - Global Warming Potential, Joint Implementation, Montreal Protocol

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
McGill University
Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 205
Professor
April 15th, 2013
extra credit for project 2: email TA emails & take apposition of a sceptical outsider
reading your part 4 of assignment 2… write 2-3 sentences reviewing what you
wrote and critiquing either the topics you summarize, the original questions or the
research you conducted… you shouldn’t comment on your conversations or
responses you received; you’re graded on how clear & specific you are; due by
Friday 4 pm
review session is next Monday at 10 am in Burnside 306
review: there is a general consensus on anthropogenic climate change
review: calibrate GCM on past and future climates to check for accuracy
review: we have evidence from a number of different scientists in different fields
works independently that corroborate with each other to provide evidence that the
earth is warming
review: if following the precautionary principle, should take action of anthropogenic
climate change yesterday, today and tomorrow
review: United nations Framework Convention Climate Change proposed that by
2000 the signatory countries should bring greenhouse gas emissions to no more
than their 1990 levels
review: in 2006 consumptions of oil accounted for highest percentage of 507
exajoules (1018 J)
these questions are very similar to what we will find in the multiple choice section
of the final exam
today’s lecture is about strategies for action on an international scale
precautionary principle
o humans take precautionary measures for what might come in the future; ie/
home insurance in case of a natural disaster; ie/ taking vaccines to prevent
future diseases
o precautionary principle says that we should take action before the
consequences become too severe
o at what point should we start taking action?
what can we do?
o adapt to impacts; think about what the impacts might be; how can the
community adapt itself as well as ecosystems?
adaptation: preparing human communities or the future conditions
of climate changes
o mitigate emissions
mitigation: attempts to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases
o how do the international agreements make use of both of these tools?
carbon dioxide
o reduce sources:
reduce fossil fuel emissions through taxation (direct taxation, carbon
tax which imposes a cost for burning or consuming it) or “cap and
trade” (idea of setting an overall cap internationally or nationally for
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Document Summary

Adaptation: preparing human communities or the future conditions of climate changes: mitigate emissions. Bury co2 in mines and oil wells, or in the deep oceans increase biological uptake in oceans, such as fertilizing oceans with iron (fe) which is a limiting nutrient. We have been doing this since the late 1980s. A possible solution is to increase the amount of photosynthesis happening in the ocean by increasing the concentration of co2. Problems with this approach: changes the nutrients and chemicals of the sea life, other limiting nutrients (p, n) may limit bloom, side effects include production of tings like neurotoxins (shown in some laboratory experiments) Nitrous oxide increase efficiency with which n fertilizers are used in agriculture: reduce burning of fossil fuels and biomass. Examples of adaptation: use scarce water more efficiently drip water agricultural system, adapting building codes to new storms/conditions, building flood defences/enhancing existing dyke systems, develop drought tolerant crops.

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