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GEOG 205 (26)

April 15th

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GEOG 205
Gail Chmura

April 15 , 2013  extra credit for project 2: email TA emails & take apposition of a sceptical outsider reading your part 4 of assignment 2… write 2-3 sentences reviewing what you wrote and critiquing either the topics you summarize, the original questions or the research you conducted… you shouldn’t comment on your conversations or responses you received; you’re graded on how clear & specific you are; due by Friday 4 pm  review session is next Monday at 10 am in Burnside 306  review: there is a general consensus on anthropogenic climate change  review: calibrate GCM on past and future climates to check for accuracy  review: we have evidence from a number of different scientists in different fields works independently that corroborate with each other to provide evidence that the earth is warming  review: if following the precautionary principle, should take action of anthropogenic climate change yesterday, today and tomorrow  review: United nations Framework Convention Climate Change proposed that by 2000 the signatory countries should bring greenhouse gas emissions to no more than their 1990 levels  review: in 2006 consumptions of oil accounted for highest percentage of 507 18 exajoules (10 J)  these questions are very similar to what we will find in the multiple choice section of the final exam  today’s lecture is about strategies for action on an international scale  precautionary principle o humans take precautionary measures for what might come in the future; ie/ home insurance in case of a natural disaster; ie/ taking vaccines to prevent future diseases o precautionary principle says that we should take action before the consequences become too severe o at what point should we start taking action?  what can we do? o adapt  to impacts; think about what the impacts might be; how can the community adapt itself as well as ecosystems?  adaptation: preparing human communities or the future conditions of climate changes o mitigate emissions  mitigation: attempts to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases o how do the international agreements make use of both of these tools?  carbon dioxide o reduce sources:  reduce fossil fuel emissions through taxation (direct taxation, carbon tax which imposes a cost for burning or consuming it) or “cap and trade” (idea of setting an overall cap internationally or nationally for the amount of CO2 emissions, but allowing players in the market to trade permits; this works for those who can easily cap their emissions to trade with those cannot easily cap their emissions)  increase efficiency of technology o increase sinks  increase C sequestration on land  plant trees on abandoned land, reduce tillage on agricultural land to increase soil C storage  bury CO2 in mines and oil wells, or in the deep oceans  increase biological uptake in oceans, such as “fertilizing” oceans with iron (Fe) which is a limiting nutrient  we have been doing this since the late 1980s  a possible solution is to increase the amount of photosynthesis happening in the ocean by increasing the concentration of CO2  problems with this approach o changes the nutrients and chemicals of the sea life o other limiting nutrients (P, N) may limit bloom o side effects include production of tings like neurotoxins (shown in some laboratory experiments)  methane o rice patties are a huge source of methane (they are warm, they provide ideal habitats from those that emit methane) o reduce methane through better water management (reduce period of waterlogging) and rice plant varieties that emit less methane o develop cows and sheep that fart and belch less methane o capture methane from landfills for energy production  this is fairly common on a small scale  nitrous oxide o increase efficiency with which N fertilizers are used in agriculture o reduce burning of fossil fuels and biomass o improve management of feedlot wastes  CFCs o reduce CFC emissions and ensure that substitutes have a small global warming pot
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