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Lecture 2

GEOG 210 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Concentric Objects, Environmental Determinism, Topological Space


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 210
Professor
Jon Unruh
Lecture
2

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GEOGRAPHY LECTURE 2: PLACES, SPACE SCALES
Outline:
1. Place and space
2. Scale
3. Landscape
4. Region
1. Place and Space
Place
Ex: campus, downtown, café, Canada
Place also exists in time (ex: picture from 100 years ago vs. now) -> is it the same location
but different place?
Ex: desert in morocco. To us it doesn’t signify anything but for locals the rocks arranged
on the ground signify a mosque for travellers
Ex: water and a lake could also mean the outdoors or a park could mean childhood
Places do not exist in isolation they are connected and exist in relation to another
Places are geographical locales of any size or configuration
Places are dynamic, in a state of constant transformation
Places have cultural and subjective meanings
Places are connected, they form part of a larger web or network
Places Have Emotional Content
Topophilia: the love of a place
Topophobia: the phobia of a place
Ex: landscape from (olland fields could feel homey if you’re from there, claustrophobic if
you’re not
Location
Ex: church in Georgia
Absolute location
o Latitude: angular distance of a point north or south of the equator
o Longitude: angular distance of a point east or west of the prime meridian
o Both in degrees, minutes, seconds,
o Meridians and parallels
Relative Location
o Site: relative to physical attributes
o Situation: relative to other places
Ex: between Georgia and Russia
Distance
First Law of Geography
o Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related to each
other than distant things
Absolute distance: physical measure of the separation between location
Relative distance: what it takes to travel from a to b
o Time
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o Cost
o Effort
All known as the friction of distance
Friction of distance and activity space
Example of village in morocco with no public transportation
The activity space is determined by
Mobility
Stage in life
Opportunities
Space
Oxford dictionary: A continuous area or expanse which is free, available or unoccupied
Space is Produced
o Absolute (mathematical) space: three-dimensional container
Space is relational
o Topological space: connectivity between points
Ex: metro network
Place and Space
Place can exist in space
Tight or loose relationship…
o Ex: Wellington Street is in a defined space
o Ex: Outdoors has a looser relationship
2. Scale
Scale
You measure things in relation to something else
Map Scale
The ratio between linear distance on a map and on the earth’s surface
The choice of scale depends on the problems at hand
Large scale= large fraction
Small scale= small fraction
Operational Scale
The scale of analysis/data collection
Fluid boundaries
Ontological or epistemological?
o Exists vs. way of thinking about it
o Depends on your perspective (personal)
How Do Scales Fit Together
Ladder (above/below)
Concentric circles (larger/smaller)
Roots (networked)
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