HISP 226 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Krausism, Regenerationism, Modernisme
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Lecture 15 - Dawn of the 20th Century: The generation of ’98, and
What do we mean by modernity?
Rupture - scandalizes the establishment
Make it "new": do something old in a consciously new way
"the loss of certainty, and the realization that certainty can never be established, once and for all"
- loss of certainty in tradition but new faith in ideals and the future
Attempts at getting rid of the power of the Church
o The Nation
Flags, ideas, identity
Progress: there is a path to follow, often guided by ideology that will lead to a better future. The
implication is also that much of what was old and traditional was either wrong or obsolete
How do you achieve the aims of modernity?
o Revolution from above
o Revolution from below
In both cases, there is a new confidence in the state as the solution. So another aspect
of modernity is the growth of the power of the state.
Romanticism, realism and the particular Spanish devotion of "Krausism"
Becquer: poet and greatest exponent of romanticism in Spain
Galdos: realist novels - brought major historical events to novel
Clarin: realist novelist
Krausism - idealist philosophy that advocated regeneration through moral liberalism, education and
toleration. Deep moral mission / free educational institute most impactful consequences
Writers and intellectuals taking social matters into their own hands
The generation of '98 and 'regenerationism'
Loss of Spanish empire in 1898 - national humiliation / introspective generation that generates
o Intellectuals who objected to the corrupt and conformist establishment in Spain
o Greatest attribute: in tune with European currents of though
Sense of regionalism - Basque nationalism, Catalan - get a second wind in this generation.
Modernism does have a duality - looking forward but reacting with its past
The most prominent representative of Regenerationism was the Aragonese politician Joaquin
Regeneration strongly influenced by Krausism
Spanish historical paintings - the national epic
Art scene in cosmopolitan Barcelona of the late 19th-early 20th century
Café-bar Els quatre gats became the unofficial hub of Barcelona's modernist artistic community
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