HIST 203 Lecture 5: Lecture 5

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8 Jun 2018
Department
Course
Lecture 5 May 9th
Religion and Social Reform
Study Questions
How can we define the reform movements of the early 20th century? What did they
have in common?
According to reformers, what were the major social problems in Canada?
How did Canada’s participation in the First World War contribute to its definition as
a nation?
How is Canada’s contribution to the Great War remembered today and how does
that impact the writing of Canadian history?
Film Critique Info
Wednesday 11:59pm
Rubric
o Strong introduction, strong thesis statement
o Clear arguments, present
Don’t just summarize the film
Don’t say so and so criticized this about the film
Wants to know how we feel
o Critical analysis
o Sources to support our argument
o If you use a secondary source it must be referenced Chicago Manual
citation
If using a lecture site it: lecture name and date
o Format of the essay writing style and general structure of it
Urban Reformers
City Beautiful movement: improving the physical structure and aesthetic nature of
the city
o Would bring more order and improve public morals
o Changing the structure of the city could also change the people in it
Led to the creation of municipal parks, landscaping of public buildings
Mount Royal Park in Montreal
Sanitation, Nutrition, Housing Conditions
Improving drinking water
o Addition of chlorine (as of 1910) reduced the death rate of children in
Montreal
o Introduction of filtration (first water filtration plant built in 1914)
Specialized hospitals (early 1900s)
o Gouttes de lait (beginning in 1910) primary source image
Network of milk stations
Distributed pasteurized milk and educated mothers about hygiene
Changes in health care and childbirth
o More and more women went to the hospital to give birth
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The Conservation Movement and Recreation
Concert to preserve Canada’s natural environment, especially wildlife, in the face of
urbanization and industrialization
Initially, national parks created as tourist resorts (intended to promote CPR)
o Concerned with commercial assets to promote the Canadian Pacific Railway
to increase tourist revenue
Closely tied to the idea of back to nature to counteract the idea of city life
o Spending time outside of the city and in nature was good for health
Growing interest to escape the city
Challenging masculinity
Toronto the Good
Toronto was the centre of the social purity movement
Working single women as moral problem
William Howland, mayor of Toronto, established morality departments
o To arrest and prosecute anyone in prostitution
o Impacted young girls who would be walking home and would be questioned
by police officers assuming they were prostitutes
Vice gambling and prostitution
Advocates were particularly concerned about naïve young girls who were attracted
to urban centers sex moved from the church and family to the state
Women and Sports
Wanted women to be healthy
Healthy women = healthy babies
Some were worried that sports were making women too masculine
Biking exercise, transportation, freedom for women
o Changed the way women dressed
Some reformers thought that cycling was linked to moral decay and thought that it
was dangerous for women’s reproduction health
Social Gospel Movement
New movement in 1890s
Grew out of the Protestant churches
Work for social change was seen as a spiritual activity inspired by God and the
desire to establish the Kingdom of God on earth
James S. Woodsworth (1874-1942)
Born near Toronto, Ontario
Moved to Manitoba in 1882
Methodist minister as of 1896
Superintendent of All People’s Mission in Winnipeg (1904 to 1913)
Independent Labour MP (1921)
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First leader of the Co-Operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in 1933
Two books: Strangers Within Our Gates and My Neighbor
o Tackled the issues of urban slums and immigration
o Ways for immigrants to immigrate into Canadian society
Immigration Act of 1910
1, Those physically, mentally or morally unfit whose exclusion is provided for by the
immigration act
2. Those belonging to nationalities unlikely to assimilate and who, consequently,
prevent the building up of a united nation of people of similar customs and ideals
3. Those who form their mode of life and occupations are likely to crowd into urban
centres and bring about a state of congestion which might result in unemployment
and a lowering of the standard of Canadian national life
Nativist Attitudes and Chinese Attitudes
Some were brought as contracted labourers by mine owners
Chinese immigration
o Head tax on all Chinese immigrants
1885 - $50
1900 - $100
1903 - $500
o The Chinese Immigration Act of the Chinese Exclusion Act (1923) banned
Chinese immigration
Vancouver Race Riot (1907)
Vandalism in Chinatown and Japan Town in Vancouver
Ancient immigrants were unable to assimilate and had a low standard of living
Chinatown was perceived as a place of prostitution, gambling, and opium
o Stereotypes with Chinese immigrants
8,000 people participated in these riots
The mob was calling for a white Canada
Quickly became violent, causes thousands of dollars’ worth of damage
Prohibition and Temperance Movement
Alcohol as a potential social threat
o Was a huge worry for the middle-class protestant reformers
Alcohol was seen to be the main cause of poverty and the retched state of the lower
class
Money shouldn’t be wasted on booze
Prohibition legislation
Women and Reform
Temperance and prohibition, public health, education, reform of vice, and women’s
suffrage
Emphasized moral regeneration or the traditional Protestant middle-class virtues
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Document Summary

If using a lecture site it: lecture name and date the city citation. Urban reformers: led to the creation of municipal parks, landscaping of public buildings, mount royal park in montreal. The conservation movement and recreation urbanization and industrialization. James s. woodsworth (1874-1942: born near toronto, ontario, moved to manitoba in 1882, methodist minister as of 1896, superintendent of all people"s mission in winnipeg (1904 to 1913) Immigration act of 1910: 1, those physically, mentally or morally unfit whose exclusion is provided for by the immigration act, 2. Those belonging to nationalities unlikely to assimilate and who, consequently, prevent the building up of a united nation of people of similar customs and ideals: 3. Those who form their mode of life and occupations are likely to crowd into urban centres and bring about a state of congestion which might result in unemployment and a lowering of the standard of canadian national life.

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