HIST 203 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Distinct Society, Power Balance, George Manuel

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8 Jun 2018
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Lecture 13 May 24th
The Parti Quebecois and the Trudeau Government
1980 Referendum Question:
Long, had influence of results of referendum
Internal and external factors that influenced the results of the referendum:
o Internal influence: Lise Payette committed major mistake, when referencing
to Claude Ryan, referred to his wife as a Yvette or a stay-at-home wife
which caused a riot, denouncing her
Support for yes side dropped to 40%
o External influence: Trudeau’s speech on May th 1988, promised to renew
Quebec into legislation and integrate them better, say yes
Referendum results:
o Voter turnout: 82%
Yes =40%
No = 59%
o People who voted yes were more educated
o All English speakers voted yes
Indian Act
Indian Act be revised to better protect first nation’s rights, going against Trudeau’s
vision of revising the Indian Act.
WWII affected Indigenous Canadians, despite not being recognized as full
Canadians, enlisted in higher numbers than any other segment in the population
Became important to war effort, had advantage which was language
Indigenous soldiers were able to foster relationships with other Canadian recruits,
strengthened pan-native population
Veterans felt like they were still second class citizens due to inequality in reserves
Following war, new native organizations formed in Canada attempted to organize
on a national level, bring awareness to issues faced by first nations
Growing movement along provincial/national rather than community/tribal
New Postwar Attitude towards indigenous people in Canada:
o Pseudoscientific race theory discredited
o Certain races were inherently inferior to other races
o Newspaper, radio, television brought attention to impoverished health and
living conditions
o Decolonization + civil rights movements brought attention to the plight of
minorities
o Indigenous leaders made their opinions known
o Due to increase in political organization
Parliament review of Indian act, relax powerful controls over the reserve, part of
push was due to people thinking first nations did enough in WWII to merit better
treatment
Led to changes in Indian act
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o Provincial indigenous organization participated in joint committee of senate
on changes in Indian Act, first consultation for amendments or revisions to
the act
o Canadian Bill of rights in 1960 by Diefenbaker, made it illegal to discriminate
on the basis of colour. Indigenous were extended full citizenship rights and
right to vote.
Sixties Scoop
Contributed to renewed cultural practices, new act gave provincial authority over
indigenous children
Sixties scoop was referencing that thousands of indigenous children were put into
foster care
Didn’t take steps to preserve culture
Hawthorn Report (1966)
A Survey of the Contemporary Indians of Canada: A Report on Economic, Political, and
Educational Needs and Policies
Citizen Plus:
o In addition to the rights and duties of citizenship, Indians possess certain
additional rights as charter members of the Canadian community
Hawthorn was asked by federal government to write a report on living conditions
What was expressed by the media for a while, is now expressed by the state
The report wasn’t an assimilationist, the report urged that Indigenous people should
be taught in own language, and criticized Canadian textbooks for painting
aboriginals in negative light
1969 Trudeau and foreign affairs minister wrote a white paper on indian policy
The White Paper of 1969
Liberal government’s approach was to incorporate Indigenous people into society
Decided this without meaningful prior consultation
Called for a:
1. Repeal of the Indian Act
2. Elimination of reserves
3. Abandon of citizens plus
4. Transfer of responsibilities for Indian Affairs to provinces
The Unjust Society Harold Cardinal
The only good Indian is a non-Indian – the government’s approach
Buckskin curtain – ignorance and bigotry had gotten in the way
Demanded the right to be a red title in the Canadian mosaic – what makes Canada
great is mosaic
Social programs, aboriginal rights, education, economic development
Citizens Plus or The Red Paper
Response to the white paper
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Document Summary

1980 referendum question: long, had influence of results of referendum. Indian act be revised to better protect first nation"s rights, going against trudeau"s: wwii affected indigenous canadians, despite not being recognized as full vision of revising the indian act. Canadians, enlisted in higher numbers than any other segment in the population: became important to war effort, had advantage which was language. Indigenous were extended full citizenship rights and right to vote. Sixties scoop: contributed to renewed cultural practices, new act gave provincial authority over indigenous children, sixties scoop was referencing that thousands of indigenous children were put into foster care, didn"t take steps to preserve culture. Hawthorn report (1966: a survey of the contemporary indians of canada: a report on economic, political, and. James bay and northern quebec agreement first (cid:498)modern treaty(cid:499) signed in (cid:883)(cid:891)(cid:889)(cid:887) The provinces, the constitution, and the charter of rights.

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