HIST 203 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: English Canada, Social Gospel, War Bond

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HIST. 203
February 14th, 2017
Exam:
One of the questions at the start of the conference book
One page to do that question ^
The essay = a broad question (3 pages)
^ Do not try to throw in tons of detail, draw from right across the course
Read the question!
At the start read all of the exams and pick the two you will answer
Brief outline of the response
The Great War:
He is doing a parallel what is going on at the war front and what is going on at
the home front
Views:
The trying four years of Canada’s history
It is a coming of age time
Jumped from being a colony to independence
^they started to have a place on the world stage
For English Canadians there was a sense of Canadian nationality
Most came back as Canadians not with their province
The war was a period of idealism (not purification)
o Social reformers in the social gospel movement, what caused such a
senseless war
o Should we have gone in this direction?
o But at the same time they found a way to justify the war justice, freedom
o ^this was taken by the Methodist Church of Canada
o Saw the war as the final stage of the downfall of capitalism
o *recall the idealist view (knights and trades in commerce) the bread and
butter issue of unionism they predominated at the start of the 20th
century and we see a decline in the labor movement
replaced by a more radical labour movement miners in the west,
steel in Atlantic Canada
^They saw this war as the start of the end would show the
contradictions of capitalism
^^A war have to be fought… or did it? English Canada wished so… did so many
people have to participate in it? That was an open question during the war
certain sectors of English Canada asked these questions for sure in French
Canada
By the end of the war, the nation was split ethnic lines… Laurier tried to rid of
this
Government = pressure, every capable man to enter the war
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Warfront August 4th, 1914
Europe was a tinderbox that summer
Britain and Germany were on a collision course the Naval build-up
All of this technology had contributed to that clash
As part of the British empire, Canada was at war when Britain was however, it
could decide how it should participate
Canadians had no idea how long the war would go on and how deeply they
would get involved
^ The time-period was sure
1914 6 months after war had broken out there will be no conscription (the
Prime Minister) he was a guiding light to bringing Canada into the war and
come up with a Policy concerning how much they would participate (Borden
liked the Imperial tie - he felt they should participate strongly however, he was
a politician and to sell the war he had to be very careful)
Conscription a certain class of individuals they are called up to go to the war
they must do so, unless excused by the state not to do so will involve penalties
Early calls Canada was able to find a good number of volunteers
Late sept to late march there was little difficulty getting men over for the first
contingent 35,000 men over 25,000 were in fact British born
There were good reasons for not going farmers they needed their 20 year old
sons, you would try to hold off from them going off to the front
VERY weak for French Canadians they were not happy for going into this war
^ Henri Bourassa = unhappiness about the Naval Act French Canada = an
isolationism for European wars
There was resentment in Quebec for the British nature of Militia the leader was
an Orangeman he showed no sensitivity to French Canada
During the war there were issues regarding language regarding schools in East
Ontario many unofficially ran on the French Language Ottawa Valley
Why are we going to fight a battle against the Prussians when they are right next
door?
Nothing could encourage them could convince them to go
There seemed to be strong arguments developing for conscription strong
pressure on all able body men
Draft = a registration taking stock of the human resources to leave their jobs and
to sign up for the army there was a lot of social pressure for these men to get
involved
Men had to be selected wisely did not want to drain resources
^ There is a home front that had to take care of industrial production towards the
war & food
Back to the war front Two Front War
See PP for the map of the two fronts
A first Canadian division sent in 1915 in April that first division was sent to
Ypres
^ major experience of the poison gas
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