HIST 215 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Protestantism, Economic Liberalism, Russian Bear

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-Baracades of paris- 1830 revolution: wrote a literature piece on this and
film director in 20th century visualized it through de la croix- the libertie
guiding the people: done in the 3 glorious days of 1830- when the second
revolution takes place in france. The figure is garosh- who influenced verego
when she wrote the piece. This painting was a way for la croix to capture the
piece, and it was ap ropoganda. Captures the dramatic generation about
challenging the restoration of Europe.
Heinriche heinrw(1797-1856). Memoirs:
Conservative reaction to revolution,
German poet- letter from 1830- says my desire for rest is gone, I will go and
fight and right songs- very dramatic
In other letter he learns of the events in parus
He says he will go and fight in paris- for the blessings of a new revolution-
shows a conversion
-Goes to see the liberal paris of 1830s, and you see him becoming an artist
and talking more about painting.
This is one of the important artistic movements of this century-romanticism
and it is extremely political, it is born out of the attempt in 1815 to return to
the old order, an older tradition of society.
3 places of revolution: paris, Brussels, warsaw
Holy alliance(1815-1848)- Austria, Prussia, Russia- any state that undergoes
a change in government because of revolution, seizes to be a member of the
European alliance(union)- A moment of a conservative reaction, where 3
states ddecide that the French revolution brought chaos in Europe so we
should stop revolutionary attemps and intervene so order is restored- the
beginning of a conservative moment
Divided political ideology into conservatism vs. liberalism
3 major ideologies: socialism
Conservativsm(1830s): something that values tradition and stability above
the individual, what is important is the tradition and stability of society.
Liberalism(1819) primary function of government is to promote individual
liberty, to allow an individual to thrive and liberalism sees that commerce
and free-market economy instead of war should be what the state promotes.
The best way to govern is to have a representative government system
rather than a direct political participation as in republics or antiquity states
like Athens or what had happened with the jacobins and commitees of
assemblies of revolution.
-Goes well with romanticism- we don’t agree on it’s definition
earlu 20h centry- biren- identified 152 different definitions
Socialism
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Romanticism:
Disentchantment with the idea of progress and science.
Reaction to science
Religious revival
Glorification of middle ages
Scientific- following principles to have progress, society will be better. The
romantics are disentchanted by this, they believe man is not capable of
doing this and science is not the solution
Frankenstein: the modern promentheus-modern shelly: important romantic
poet. He says that the will of man to be creator like god, has led to a
monster and monstrous situations(post-revolution) Europe has been through
constant warfare. Mans belief in scientific progress is troublesome.
Religious revival from 1815 onwards- present everywhere, English: the new
revival/awakening- Catholicism: the second confessionalization
Proliferation of new religious orders and missions to go abroad and within
Europe to transmit the religious message
Why religious activism? Religion and the different churches are trying to gain
back their position of control within society- accompanied by strong
ideological statements about religion
Joseph demestre(enlightenment): important to obey to god and pope and
not even think- it is a way to authority- if man goes out of this, he is lost.
This moment is a huge religious revival, proliferation of miracles, people
thinking about caring for the poor and feable and weak. A religious revival-
emphasis not anymore on antiquity, that was polotheistic(not Catholicism)-
the period we glorify is the middle ages. Since the renaissance and
enlightenment it is the middle ages- a revival of Catholicism.
Middle ages- not necessarily a dark period, it is glorified- the fact that they
valued Christianity, the artistic production- gothic cathedrals: became very
popular in the 19th century- notre dame paris: exactly this thing.
Reconstructions of gothic churche in the 19th century- very creatively.
In the middle ages the cathedral was painted, but in the 19th century they
revisioned what the church would look like
England: walter scott- famous writer writing about robbin hood- writing
about medieval heroes.
Revolt in the name of liberty
Thomas Philips-bord Byron in an Albanian costume, 1813:
Romantics decide that as artists and real people, fighting on baracades
against real people
Lord Byron- embodies romantic poetry in Britain(Thomas, very chaotic
person- remains an idol of many people today
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Lord Byron- traditionally goes on the grand tour- trips to Italy and Greece
and becomes passionate about Greece and writes about it. Represents
himself as a local person from that time,
Another one in the salon of the british embecy in paris
Stands for the unique bond of artists fighting against people against the
conservative reaction present all over eurrope
1820
s: a revolutionary atmoshphere, after the forming of the holy alliance
many people start revolutions in Italy and spain.
Italy-carbonari: Italian republicans organize themselves in secret
associations to maintain the spirit of revolution against conservatism- one
moment that changes things is the greek war of independence in 1821.
Byron fought in the greek war of independence- many leave to go fight
Ottoman empire-Greeks: this starts the moment of philhellenism- friendship
for the greeks. It is a dual phenomena. The greek revolt is significant
because all the liberal romantics cannot mount in their own countries and
feel repressed, so the fact that the greeks are fighting against oppression, is
a sign for them to go and fight. This for them, is a way to react to their own
society. It is a contemporary message if you try to understand people
fighting jihads in other countries.
A unique bond of artists and people together represented in the picture.
The idea of trans-national political friendship-greek revolt
-Lord Byron: had a good friend, purseshelli who writes a poem when the
greek war of independece starts- Hellas: in favor of greek war of
independence. Important because it is the origins of the expression of today.
When we say we are all americans or whatever, it goes back to pureshelli
Says we are all greeks- first time of expression to say we are all somebody
else and it will have a huge geneality, going up to world war 2 and after the
cold war and up to 9/11
Shelly finishes his point by saying should the English people ever become
free- they will reflect the part they played in the revival of liberty here, it is
age of the war of the oppressed against the oppressors. Everyone joins
against the common enemy. The new race has arisen in Europe.
This puts England into the same category- if you are not supporting the
liberty of revolutionaries, you are a tyranny yourself- the paragraph was
surpressed in 1812, and it only appeared years later(censored)
A poet going out and fighting for liberty
-This disturbs the holy alliance, produces rift between Russia and the
western powers. This breach will create lots of other revolutionary moments.
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