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Lecture 2

387 - Week 9 – Lecture 2 - Home Front and War Aims .docx

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HIST 387
Peter Hoffmann

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Week 9 – Lecture 2 History 387 – the First World War The Home Front Terms: Brenner, Istria, Bukovina, Kreuznach, Spahn, Erzberger, Schwander, Krause, Kapp, Tyrol, Goiz, Sykes, Picot, Banat, Stresemann, Michaelis, Wallraf, Muller, Schiffer, Graf Gerrtling Home Front • civil population • they’re a target, a matter of what can be done, rather than what ought to be done • 18th century, armies aways targeted civil populations • Sea Power enabled a power to set up a blockade/means, to affect and starve an entire population cut off foods, etc. • Central powers had little or no response except the submarines fairly effective, not decisive, but still painful for the allied side • Aerial bombing in first ww not as much as second idea was there, attempted to apply it • British blockade had effect on Ger by the end of 1915 import and export declined considerably rationing for food and clothing inflation price controls • German industrial workers and soldiers - well feed generally • German had not stock piled raw materials for war production - so they had to start during the way - marshal their raw materials and manage them • Walter Rainaw CEO ofAEG - Electrical German company immediately set up War Materials office Sept 1914 under the office of War Ministry was jewish and was murdered after the war for having been part of the armistice commission on the German side • Finance minister before the war - also murdered, some said he was a jew, but he was a catholic also accused and murdered • Central purchasing organization - wood pulp for textiles and made synthetic rubber from coal nitrates for fertilizers and for explosives • 1916 - Germany - serious food shortages bread - rationed coffee and tea gone • Greiner - library for the study of WW1 in Germany still exists today collects all books that are published • At the front soldiers complained about saw dust in their bread • Food situation - 1917 was worse • Altercations in bread lines, developing into riots, into strikes • Strikes April 1917 • the Russian revolution had an impact • August 1917 - Sailors mutinied had been kept idle since the battle of Jutland • Januaray 1918 - prolonged strikes in Hamburg, Kiel, and Berlin marshal law had to be declared • Number of reasons for these disturbances poor prospect for the war effort hardships, soldiers in the trenches don’t have much time and chance and try to survive • Events in russia which were infectious • Politicians eventually that if the large majority of politicians in Reichstag 212-226 to pass a peace resolution - 19th July 1917 declaring for a peace w/o annexations 7 months after a failed peace initiative - Woodrow Wilson Bet Han Hollweg failed to control Reichstag • Reichstag was not rebelled - they quoted from the Throne speech 4th August 1914 • Chancellor was embarrassed • Ludendorff remained Chancellor’s resignation • War had become a war of endurance or attrition efficiency in killing opponents - that seemed to be the measure Germany should have won • High command tried to get wage increases for workers in the war industry • Agitation from the Peace treaty with no annexation was growing • Bread riots, urban poor had to begin to subsist on turnips • Mortality of woman and children up 50% from 1914 • Hunger related diseases became endemic • Stats say that 730,000 deaths are directly attributable to the blockade • Lung disease in the same time rose form 1.9 per 1,000 to 2.46 per 1,000 BRITAIN • In Britain preparations had not been made for a long war • Few things had been readied War Book for the Gov’t to control ports, shipping, railways, insurance rates to see the various pieces of legislations “The Law Reports” • Conduct for War Secretary of War - Kitchener • 1 million volunteers by the end of 1914 • Supply of volunteers dried up in the summer of 1915 • in May 1916 reluctantly introduced conscription • woman took the places increasingly at home - same as in Ger and France too • Offices, factories, agriculture • Suffrage for woman movement supported the war effort • Suport war effort meant men dying - encouraging men to sign up • Suffrage movement - saw that they could get the vote • 1918 - women over 30 could vote • 1918 - undernourish population FRANCE • 90% of iron ores gone • efficient beaucracy • larger agrarian social structure • food supplies or armaments industry didn’t suffer • they lost a lot of men • 1917 large scale mutinies RUSSIA • geographically isolated • major export grain southwards • Russian army short of ammunition as all others at the end of 1914 like most people were • 4 mill men lost in 1915 • Tsarina’s advisor Rasputin persuaded the Tsar Nicholas II to dismiss his uncle Nicholas from the army and to take charge himself • Tsarina took charge of gov’t her self • Provisions at home were catastrophic - no food • no transport • huge evasion of military service • end of 1916 had to be declared as ungovernable AUSTRIA-HUNGARY • multinational solidarity at the onset of war - showed cracks decline • Conrad’s disastrous winter campaign costed them 2 mill men • by spring of 1915 • hard country to run • 12 official languages spoken • Austria depending on hungary - hungary doesn’t wan a give • Austrian characteristic - "situation is hopeless but not serious” Austria survived against all odds Austria was better than reputation • Nationalism was peaking • Vienna began striving earlier than Petrograde • 1917 had just given out, Austria left/deserted the alliance w/ Ger and Turkey WarAims • a group of allies should always discuss war-aims to avoid mix ups and such • Ottoman empire ready for dissolution and re-distribution • 5th Sept 1914 - Britain, France and Russia decided not to make separate peace agreements • France and Britain conceded to Russia - 1918 - annexation of Constantinople and Straits it didn’t happen but Russia would not have cared • Fr, Brit and Russ conceded to Italy in April 1915 part of Dalmatian coast aegan islands adalia on south coast of asia minor • Brit and France agreed in May 1916 dismember asiatic Turkey Romania, Translyvania, these to be taken from hungary • France was to receive alasce remain and Britain - most of Ger colonies • France and Russia agreed 1917 feb/march - France was to expand Alsace Lorraine to the boards of the former Lorraine and the left bank of the Rhine was to become an autonomous neutral state • Russia for her part was to set it’s external west
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