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Lecture: Myths and Models (Lecture January 10, 2013)

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HIST 390
Margaret Carlyle

Lecture: Myths and Models (Lecture January 10, 2013) Periodisation • How do historians approach the past ◦ time ▪ obviously ◦ place/space ▪ like Russian or French Revolution ◦ people ▪ think Napoleon, or writers and intellectuals, the age of Queen Victoria ◦ ideas/themes/tropes/"zeitgeist' ▪ the spirit of an age (Age of Reason, Scientific Revolution) ◦ "our" period = 1643-1715 & 1715-1789 The French Wars of Religion 1562-1598 (or 1629?) • Hundred Years War 1337-1453 ▪ between France and England ▪ dynastic dispute ▪ King William the Conqueror also Duke of Normandy (so he owed homage to the French King) ▪ French ended up victorious • Catholic vs. Protestant ◦ extended period of civil war ◦ lots of military activity ◦ French Calvinist Protestants = Huguenots • Bourbon vs. Guise ◦ house of Bourbon is ruling family since 16thC France ▪ controlled Spain, Italy, Naples, and Parma ◦ house of Guise is behind the wars of religion ▪ ardent champions of the Catholics ▪ wanted to expunge Protestants from France • St. Bartholomew's Day massacred 1572 ◦ killing of Huguenot leaders by Catholics ◦ resulted in mob violence against Huguenots ◦ took place four days after royal marriage between King's sister Margaret and Henry III (became Henry IV) ◦ ripe opportunity for Catholics to attack because so many Protestants would be there for the wedding • Edict of Nantes ◦ 1598 ◦ issued by Henry IV ◦ some measure of tolerance for Huguenots ◦ gave temporary end to fighting, but rebellion resurged • Edict of Alès ◦ 1629 ◦ tolerance towards Huguenots Henry IV (1553-1610) • AKA Henry of Navarre • originally a Catholic, but became a Protestant • to be King, you had to be Catholic, so he converted back ◦ "Paris is well worth a Mass"-Henry IV • "Royal touch" ◦ curing the "king's evil" (scrofula) ▪ similar to TB Louis XIII (r. 1610-1643) + Cardinal Richelieu (1624-1643) • became the right-hand man of Louis XIII • governed Louis more than Louis governed France • "chief minister" (seen as first Prime Minister in Europe) • consolidated royal power, bringing it all branches of government to Paris • sought to keep power of nobles in check French involvement in 30 Years' War (1618-1648) • about issues in Holy Roman Empire • turned into dispute between Bourbon House and Habsburg House (ruled over Central Europe) • involved series of interventions by outside countries like the Danes, the Swedes, and the French • French interventions at their height in the mid 1630s • came late to the game because Richelieu saw Habsburgs' growing power as a potential threat to the the French • Treaty of Westphalia, brokered by the French, concluded the 30 Years' War Académie Française (1635) • pre-eminent institution on matters of the French language • harmonized different dialects from different regions • known as the 40 Immortals • during French Rev., crushed ◦ seen as symbol of the crown Minority Kings (again) AKA The Regency • The Fronde (1648-1653) ◦ period during which popular discontent with monarchy turned into violent outbreaks agains the crown (including regents) ◦ Mazarin tried to prevent the violence from spiralling through taxation ▪ impose taxes on people who try to build houses outside of Paris city walls ▪ way of asserting his power ◦ considered a French civil war ▪ 1st Fronde: Parlement vs. government (crown) ▪ 2nd Frond: broadened to include nobles vs government (crown) • Anne of Austria (1601-1666) ◦ regent during Louis XIV early reign ◦ highly influenced by Mazarin • Louis XI
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