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Theories of Development III Post-development

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International Development
INTD 200
Karen Mc Allister

Theories of Development III Post-development Development as Discourse - Arose after crisis in theorizing fr/development - Modernization consid failure by devel community - Critiques of devel, feminist (negatively affected women), Marxist (dependency theorists about how devel programs + policies serving wealthy, not poor nats), neo-Liberal (emergence of soc movements: women, environ, indig) - Emerged as resistance to mainstream ideologies + what is development doing? - Arose in context of academic movement of post-structuralism + post-modernism - Influ of post-modernism - Philos reaction to modernism  Modernism = idea of objective truth, can study empirically through sci method  Post-modernism countered this  Argued: truth = not objective  actually socially objective  multiple truths  What we understand truth as depends on culture, context, time, place (relative - Language + construc of soc reality  Lang acts to create understanding of world + how we give meaning to reality - Knowl as socially construc  not neutral  Knowl situated in historical + cultural settings  Ppl have diff knowl depending on their position + how they see the world - Devel as discourse: how we speak out it, represent devel, devel’g nats influences reality - Discourse: space where only certain things can be said/imagined (devel always seen as good) - Imp issues: issues of representation - Imp of texts, images, concepts in creating “development objects” - How devel’g nats are rep is partially due to the discourse that describes them - How they classified, portrayed in images  Images call certain forces to action, ways to thinking how ppl need to intervene, creates certain issues as problems - Discourse + representations influ action - Imp for what they do (as scripts + ideologies for action) - Indusz/modz as discourse part of devel  motivates series of actions + interventions that progress assumptions Discourse and Action - Colonial discourse (“white man’s burden”) - Idea govs rep ppl as backwards + in need of interventions to improve health, agricul, edu - Representation of ppl as backwards/uncivilized justified a kind of intervention/governance by outsiders, legitimized certain kinds interventions + constructed how ppl thought about reality - Colonization = beneficial to ppl - Exploitative nature of colonization overlooked, obscured by discourse of civilization - Depoliticization - In order to justify control, need to intervene in specific ways  Intervening healthcare, pop control, nutrition, new agricul techs, sci + planning - Depoli = idea of devel as s/thing technical + can be managed  Takes away poli relations of soc change/inequity - Hegemonic theory - Hegemony: s/thing taken for granted/assumed to be a truth  Progress/devel = good in certain direction (evolutionary process to greater wealth)  Taken as natural, what e/1 should aspire to - Emergeswhenpowerfulactorsdon’thavetorelyonforcetogetppltoacceptvisionofwhatisgood - Post-devel thinkers argue: development + certain theories of development = hegemonic  Idea of progress as econ devel, modz = accepted as natural - James Ferguson – the anti-politics machine - Devel representations of Lesotho  Looked @how Lesotho was being rep by diff organizations working in nat  Looked @documents, rep Lesotho as closed, peasant soc surrounded by mountains, in need of devel, surrounded by indus Afr, untouched by devel  Represented outside of context  Didn’t rep history of colonialism, migrant relations w/South Afr  Not actually isolated peasant soc  integrated in regional trade  Representation sets up Lesotho as site of certain kind devel intervention  Project documents: intro new cash crops for market, move subsistence farmers into cash cropping, integrate markets by devel roads  Ppl would be eagerly involved in development  Project considered failure b/c roads built H: subsistence farmers never involved cash crops  What did the project do: expansion of state authority + power in the area  Area where project implemented = area where there was lots of opposition of gov  By building roads, projects  increase state control over area - Devel as tech project (neutral sci, no poli), need for outside interventions  State rep as neutral  H: state also interested in power, state not homogenou
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