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Lecture

PHGY 210 Lecture Notes - Renal Blood Flow, Renal Pelvis, Afferent Arterioles


Department
Physiology
Course Code
PHGY 210
Professor
K.Andrew White

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Renal Physiology
Kidney Functions
By making urine, the kidneys are achieving a number of things.
1. Regulation
a. Water
b. Inorganic ion balance
c. Acid-base balance
2. Removal of metabolic waste products
a. From blood
b. Excretion in urine
c. Without this, blood would be dirty in a couple of days
i. Can’t survive longer than 2 weeks
3. Removal of foreign chemicals
a. From blood
i. Urine discolored when you take antibiotics
b. Excretion in urine
4. Production of hormones & enzymes
a. Erythropoietin
i. Hormone that controls erythrocyte production
b. Renin
i. Enzyme that controls formation of angiotensin
ii. Influences blood pressure
iii. Influences Na+ balance
c. 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D
i. Active vitamin
ii. Influences Ca2+ balance
Kidney Anatomy
Weight
Population
Location
Urine
Size
150 g
0.1% of the
population
is born
with only 1
kidney but
live normal
lives
Behind the
peritoneum
On either
side of the
vertebral
column
Against the
posterior
abdominal
wall.
Made by
both the
cortex &
medulla
Eliminated
into the
pelvis
Flows
through
the ureter
to the
bladder
Fist
Figure 14.01

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2
Blood Flow
After blood flows around, it is collected back in the venous system &
backtracks the way it came. Arteries and veins run side by side.
Nephron
Each kidney contains ~1 million subunits called nephrons
Renal cortex
Renal medulla
Renal pelvis
Ureter
Urine
Renal artery
Afferent arteriole
Interlobular
artery
Arcuate
artery
Interlobar artery

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3
Urine Formation
Glomerular Filtration
The glomerular capillary wall is the beginning of how urine is made.
1. Blood/plasma goes through fenestra of endothelial cells
2. Through mesh of GBM
3. Through filtration slit
4. Into Bowman’s space
a. Contains most substances in plasma
i. Water
ii. Low-molecular weight substances
iii. Large molecules can’t pass
1. Cells
a. Like RBC
b. Reason why blood in
urine is a bad sign
2. Proteins
a. Albumin
b. Globulin
3. Protein-bound substances
a. ½ of Ca2+
b. Fatty acids
iv. Same [ ] as in plasma
Forces Involved in Filtration
No proteins in the Bowman space fluid = no oncotic pressure
o Power to pull water back in is because of the [proteins]
Glomerular capillary wall
(filtration barrier)
Visceral
glomerular
epithelial cells
(podocytes)
GBM
Endothelial cells
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