Negative peace: the absence of war —balance of power sees negative peace as peace.
—People are still preparing for war.
Positive peace: states are working towards a common goal.
—Commitments have to be clear
—Renunciation of violence except for cases of self defence or under some sort of international supervision.
—Aims at aggressive behaviour, not at speciﬁc actors.
—Balance of power is balancing against others, which is the biggest difference.
—Conﬁdence. Nations have to know that others will ﬁght for them.
—Assurance that all nations will ﬁght against them if they attempt violence.
—Parity of power:
—All countries should have the same amount of power.
—All nations should have no more than 10%
—Universality of membership.
—All nations have to be involved in order for this to be meaningful.
—Collective security is not meant to be an expedient. It’s meant to establish a new order of politics.
—“Design a system of world order”
—International policing action vs. coalition warfare.
—Police provide defence, provide order and exhibit the common good of the community.
Boundaries between international politics and domestic level politics are blurred.
—Nations states retain their independence and autonomy.
—But they are expected to work together.
—It’s meant to override domestic level considerations when it comes to security issues.
Combination of parity and universality means that it aims at the preponderance of power, not the balance of it.
—Aggressors are met with an overwhelming opposition.
—A close balance of power is not enough to deter actors.
—Material conditions to be met:
—Disarmament: states are expected to disarm to some level.
—Actors are less likely to ﬁght.
—Economic interdependence/Economic vulnerability:
—If no nation is entirely self sufﬁcient, than sanctions can be used to deter or compel their
—Collective security requires legal and political institutions at the system level.
—Coordinates the activity of the actors.
—Offers form of adjudication.
Are we living in a world of collective security or balance of power?
What would you do if you were tasked to create a context for the successful realization of collective security?
—Through liberalism and through constructivism.
—Liberal: Collective security through a spillover process from economic interests.
—From economic interests, into political interests, into military interests.
—Constructivism: Focus on norms and values and the role of persuasion and trying to convince actors t