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Political Science
POLI 212
Hudson Meadwell

Avital Drucker POLI 212 Notes on Michael Howard‟s “Land of War, Land of Peace” -“Europe for most of its history has been a land of war” -Christian Europe had “warrior culture” -rulers in Europe justified their rule through success in wars -this belligerent culture was the one to make great strides in innovation (as compared with contemporaneous China). -“Whether or not this militarism was a necessary condition for the development of Europe‟s magnificent high culture, as John Ruskin and others would have us believe, may be debatable, but it certainly did nothing to inhibit it” -war as an innate part of European culture for many centuries -war culture is not a bad idea because benefits of winning go to rulers and soldiers, but consequences of losing fall only on the peasantry -Enlightenment: first stirrings of “anti-war movement” -partly practical reason: war becomes counterproductive because harder on taxpayer, less territorial benefits, and didn‟t increase wealth/ status of rulers -so, why didn‟t war subside in Europe then? -“democratic leaders found that the skills and values transmitted by the old military culture could not be dispensed with if their own states were to survive” -war used to maintain and defend new nation-states -so, war continues but either becomes more economical or is waged outside of Europe -all of this changes by the end of WWII: “by 1945, the peoples of Europe wanted only to live in a „land of peace‟” -why this change in attitudes?: industrial warfare destroys so much more efficiently  economies and cities destroyed much suffering. So, the costs of war finally outweighed its benefits, unless the technology changes this balance -“but one thing is clear: war can no longer be fought cost-free in Europe itself” -so, Europe hasn‟t been a land of peace. It also hasn‟t been a land of democracy -democratic thought starts with Enlightenment th th -democracy fought a long battle in Europe during the 19 and early 20 centuries: civil war between “Party of Movement” and “the Party of Order” -Party of Movement: has values of French Revolution‟ s ideals -the Party of Order: old order (landed elites, Catholic Church) -t
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