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6 - Postwar Settlements and Beyond - Britain, France, Germany, Italy

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Political Science
POLI 212
Hudson Meadwell

6: Postwar Settlements and Beyond: Britain, France, Germany, Italy Frances Postwar Settlement and Realignment - Case of labour exclusion, moderation of left comes later - Left becomes more moderate after ep of wide-spread labour unrest (May/June 68) - Communism endures as imp poli party + commitment well into 1970s/80s - Fr, very centralised state = has consequences for both for how postwar settlement emerges + how it begins to change in late 1960s - 1) Postwar settlement = product of modernising coalition in poli Coalition emerges post-1945, initially w/goal of avoiding instability + polarisation charac of Fr poli in 20s/30s Modernising coalition depends on working relationship b/w state bureaucrats + business/industrial leaders (labour plays relatively insig role) - 2) Modernisation = state-led State = agency/instit which sets Fr off on right econ path post-1945 Fr not going to depend on mechanisms of market, depends on state-led econ growth - 3) Commitment to national champions State wants to create kinds of indus that compet econ growth can be built around In part, commitment to nationalisation of indus State controlled indus structure = way to make sure growth is controlled by state - 4) Commitment to economic planning Indicative, not central planning Sets targets, in partic indus targets, in form of plans which stretch over medium term - Note: imp of state: in regulation + mgmt of econ (bureaucrats, unelected officials) - Pattern of mobilisation rooted in poli executive + in state bureaucracy - In intention + design = attempt to free mgmt of econ fr/legis - Designed to weaken instits of representation in Fr post-1945 - State-led modernisation + growth became increasing commitment of Fr state as move through history of 4 Republic th 4 Repub: relatively unstable poli regime in 12 years, 24 govs Continual rotation of parties in coalition govs Party sys inclu multiple parties, didnt have stable sort of electoral/parli core that could be used to manage + regulate econ - CONTRAST: Italy also labour exclu Econ managed fr/w/in legis, legis = dominant poli instit in postwar period - 5) Draw attention to outcomes of pattern of state management + modernisation of econ Does produce high rates of econ growth H: produces probs of inegalitarian + unfair distrib Distrib of growth = uneven both in soc + regional terms Consequence: increase regional + class inequality through 1940s/50s Produces perception in Fr soc that poli centre (state) has become too strong - 6) Imp of transit 4 to 5 Republic Changes in office of presidency 4 Repub: Fr poli sys = semi-presidential poli sys By mid-1960s, Fr poli sys much more full-presidential sys KK: presidentialisation of poli Change in electoral rules by which the president is elected President elected in separate popular election Office of presidency = freed fr/control by legis 2 stage electoral sys st nd If no one has maj in 1 , there is a 2 round Encour emergence of informal coalitions on right + left st Ex: 4 or 5 candidates who run in 1 run off for presidency, but if no one gains enough to win decisively, there are incentives for parties on right + left to coalesce around single candidate Introduces s/degree polarisation into party sys + poli more generally 1962: Algeria becomes independent = imp event in postwar Fr history Way that De Gaulle manages independence in part that strengthens poli posit in poli Q in Algeria will begin to produce increasing immigrant population in Fr soc fr/NAfr that will have consequences for poli in 70/80s - 7) Period of Realignment in Fr May/June 1968 Episode of labour militancy, reaction of organised left against policies put in place by conservative gov (De Gaulle) In partic: period of labour organisation + response begins when gov imposes wage restraint Gov also begins attempt to reduce ways in which trade unions had access to s/decisions that were made in social security sys (mgmt welfare state) High point in partic of communist party Fr/1968 on, communist party will be marginalised on the left Party emerge as dominant = socialist In events of 68, going into 70s, there was coordination on left b/w socialists + communists Coordination designed to make them successful H: began to fall apart 1980s Modernised socialist parties which dominates left emerges Communist party had long shelf life in Fr, doesnt enter last stages of decay + decline until 1980s Suggests it was a party w/deep roots in Fr soc + econ Events = most imp manifestation of extra-parliamentary opposition in poli th Challenge to 5 Repub, organised more/less in streets, outside normal instits + channels of poli debate 2 general issues in play: 1) Challenge fr/left directed at collusion b/w business + state Response to exclusion of labour fr/mgmt of econ 2) Challenge to centralised econ planning (indicative planning) Takes in first instance, form of mobilisation w/in econ Led by communist trade unions in partic In background: larger sense that Fr poli has become too centralised, bureaucratised + decis made @too high a level in poli hierarchy (presidency + state bureaucracy) Mobilisation in econ quickly spreads to other kinds of sectors Student participation (relatively newly formed uni campuses) Created in 1950s as part of plan by which to train individs for places in econ Central planning inclu creation uni to stream individs to reconstructing econ Becomes: series work strikes + stoppages in econ, occupation of factories by workers Widespread student strikes + occupation campuses Mutates into = general strike @apex of events May/June 68, workers out on strike, econ grinds to halt Has relatively minor + more imp consequences: Produce concessions fr/gov in terms of wages + wage increases Imposit of wage restraint rolled back State concedes s/concessions to trade unions Delegitimise presence of De Gaulle in Fr poli De Gaulle returned to Fr poli during + immed after transit to 5 Repub Iconic fig in Fr poli, leader of resistance outside Fr in war, person credited managing transit 4 to 5 Repub blamed for ways in which modernisation in th 5 Repub = state led + concentrated in office of presidency Events encour coordination on left b/w socialists + communists th To this point in time, both parties exclu fr/power in 5 Repub Have up until 68, worked out informal kinds of arrangements during elections By early 70s, informal coordination becomes much more formal Think about what they need to do to win to form gov Partic: in this period, socialist party begins modernise its structures + internal instits, begins think about what it needs to do become mass party Union of the left emerges Brings together 3 parties: socialist, communist, radical (centre-left) Signals: willinglsts of these parties to find a common program Put forward for 1 time electoral program, they say they will implement if elected Fr communist party has given up to s/extent, anti-sys orientation Signal: Fr communist party willing work w/in instits of 5 Repub th Recog of legit of 5 Repub Distance itself fr/connections to Soviet Union Wants to be seen as party in Fr poli, not instrument SU policies
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