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McGill University
Political Science
POLI 319
Philip Oxhorn

Importance of citizenship: • Concept of citizenship : 1.rights vs. favours : what it entails? Rights and favours get confused with each other 2.universal or segmented: who is in and who is out? Is it conditional or subordinated to other people's interests • 3 kinds of rights (T.H. Marshal) 1.capitalism to thrive needs equality of citizenship to 2.3 kinds of rights : civil, pol, social 3.he also argues that in 19th c : workers and others demanded pol rights, 4.20th c welfare state : people given social rights of citizenship (benefits) 5.people have the basic civil rights : insisted on universal suffrage, social rights as a social conquer 6.accumulation of power based on numbers : becoming more democratic in Britain, US etc to maintain social peace and recognize social demands 7.anything but opposite in Latin America • 3 models 1.citizenship as co-optation : citizenship selectively given to groups that co-opted them, had social power in number. Some pol rights, under dictatorships, civil rights ambiguous. Workers given first form of social security. Workers as a select group are being bought into the system in exchange for something else. (demanding more than the system is willing to give). People began to demand more, resulted in repression (military). Not democratic, explains that Latin America remains unjust and unequal 2.citizenship as agency : different groups involved in democratic process, define the extent and depth of rights. e.g. women's rights : only accomplished till they start organizing. Stronger civil society - stronger rights : citizenship as consumption. Criteria for getting rights depends on how much money you have. Inequality has tremendous consequences on your life. e.g. health are, education (education is skewed to private sector). Social rights declining, precarious civil rights, theres a paradox : 2 of the 3 basic rights, but everyone enjoys political rights. Weak civil rights, declining social rights and strong pol rights : can this last longer so that a government is elected which can focus on other material causes of inequality?(a race against time).Try to use pol rights to work on the declining rights. The starting point : Latin America's Colonial Legacy • Conquest : Aztec and Inca civilization destroyed, Mayan. Societies conquered rapidly 1.Aztecs : 95%. Cortez's invasion 2.Incas : more than half of the population disappeared (genocide). 3.Beginnings of slavery : need to import workers (black workers from Africa). • Roots of racism, societies disintegrated, deliberate disintegration. Designed in a way to take prestige out of the existing culture, people seized and forced to work in plantations. 1.Indigenous people less than human Colonialism in Latin America • why was conquest so dramatic? : horses, guns, always on attack. Indigenous people lacked behind in these, myths of conquest. Disease : conquest brought diseases, indigenous people had no immunity, wiped out entire populations. • Nature of spanish empire : rigid social hierarchy 1.absolute state : king at the top (by grace of god, divine right of the king). King legitimated by god with the support of catholic church 2.mercantilism : extract maximum amount of resources and funnel them to king of spain and
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