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POLI 322 oct 31.docx

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Political Science
POLI 322
Narendra Subramanian

POLI 322 – Lecture Notes October 31, 2012 -missed conference might be rescheduled COMPARATIVE SOUTH ASIAN PICTURE: RELIGION AND POLITICS -India: secular state; religion not basis of political rights  religion significant in mass politics from 1970s -Pakistan: influenced policy more than mass political allegiances; expecially from 1970s -Bangladesh: some influence over policy, 1982-96, 2001-06 -Sri Lanka: coincided with language politics  important in politics and policy since 1950s -Hindu nationalists have had significant support -India has larger religious minorities  officially upholds a composite national identity -Pakistan was a country for Muslims -some supporters of the movement expected religion to play a major-role in post-colonial politics -Indian nationalism coexisted with considerable attention to Hindu identity for a basis of understanding Indian national culture -Pakistan: Islam was, in some ways, the state religion -religious norms were also incorporated into political policy -until the 1970s, more modernist interpretations of Islamic laws were recognized -1970s on: more conservative interpretations -India had larger religious minorities than Pakistan -forces of political religion tended to attack other religious groups more often in India -Bangladesh was formed mainly based on language identity  main basis of politics and policy; more important than religion -but conservative interpretations of religion got incorporated into policies in some ways, especially under 1980s dictatorship -since 1991 return to power, there’s been more religious attention whenever Bangladesh National Party is in power -Sri Lanka: politics of religion overlap significantly with language -religion and language coincided a lot PAKISTAN: EARLY POSTCOLONIAL POLICIES -nominal recognition of Islam’s primacy  Islamic republic  Muslim governor general and PM  modernist interpretations predominant -reforms: Shariat Act amendment  Muslim Family Law Ordinance, 1961  many loopholes, weak implementation -various reforms were introduced from 1948 to the 1960s -main act: Shariat Act  said that Islamic law rather than regional customs would apply to Muslims when it came to personal life -introduced based on the initiative of certain elites -compromise was reached whereby Islamic law was not applied to the inheritance of agricultural land (to avoid giving land to women) -the main groups that had resisted applying Islamic law to agricultural laws were elites -Muslim Family Law Ordinance: matrimonial life -minimum age was set for marriage -until then, marriage had been possible once kids reached puberty -polygamy was restricted -a man had to get the permission of a bureaucrat and his wives before he could contract a later concurrent marriage -bureaucrat was expected to mediate -marriage registrati
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