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Lecture 19

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Political Science
POLI 341
Julie Norman

POLI 341 – Foreign Policy: Middle East Lecture 19 – Other International Actors (Canada, UN) March 19, 2013 Introduction - International community – how should it respond? Canadian Foreign Policy and the Middle East - Impact in the region? o Israel-Palestine  Have been a shift of Canadian foreign policy towards more support to Israel and voting along with the US in the UN  Used to play a neutral role between the EU and the US in regards to Israel-Palestine o Gulf states  Trade relations are not as tight between Canada the region as it is with Europe  Geopolitical relations are not as strong as those with the US - Should Canada seek to play a larger role in the Middle East? o Prefer neutrality?  Most Canadians prefer a neutral FP (particularly on Israel- Palestine)  Canada did not participate in the 2003 Iraq War  Part of Canadian identity? o Domestic considerations?  Movement within Canada from Jewish-Canadians or Arab- Canadians pushing for different policy - Is Canada able to play a larger role? o What leverage does Canada have?  Canada will often support US FP, but does not have a lot of political leverage itself o Financial capabilities?  This is where we see the most quantifiable FP to the region  Provides $39 million to Middle East most goes to Palestinian territories (WB, Gaza)  December 2012 – Canada and Israel sign foreign aid pact  Would work on development projects and relationship building - Future engagement at the state-level? Non-state level? o Supporting NGOs, UN effort, general non-governmental intervention Israel-Palestine FP Under Harper - Shift begins under Martin to become more accommodating of Israel o 2004 International Court of Justice votes on barrier  Canada abstains from the vote - See more alignment with Israel under Harper and a shift from attempted neutrality - 2006 – Canada was the first state to suspend aid to Palestinian Authority after the election of Hamas - 2006 – Support for the US/UK defense of Israel in Lebanon War o Europeans were very critical of intervention in this - 2008 – Declaration of Intent with Israel to deal with “common threats” to security o Wanted to share intelligence, address security, common threats to security, etc. - 2010 speech – “What the cost” by Harper o Need to look at domestic politics  Electoral considerations  Christian-Zionism  Conservative churches that are very pro-Israel  Are there certain Canadian interests in supporting Israel more strongly? - December 2012 – vote against the Palestinian Statehood big in UNGA o Israel-Canada foreign aid pact - Domestic and international responses? o Canada loses bid for non-permanent bid for a seat on the UNSC in 2010  Harper feels that Canada loses this spot because of outspoken support for Israel Role of the United Nations - Contain and limit conflict o Peacekeeping mission (UNEF following the Suez Crisis, UNIFIL in Lebanon, UNDOF in the Golan Heights)  Most were set up to be temporary, but have lasted for many years - Help victims of conflict o Humanitarian aid – UNDP, UNHCR (UN High Commission for Refugees), UNRWA (deals with specifically Palestinian refugees) - Create conditions for settlement o Forum for communication between parties o Member of the Middle East Quarter (UN, EU, US, Russia)  Main peacekeeping group that is pushing for a peace process in Israel-Palestine - Security Council – authorize interventions, sanctions, etc. o Authorize intervention in Libya o Pressure on the UNSC to take a more active stance against Syria  Difficult for the UNSC to do anything on this issue because of the veto power of Russia - General Assembly – politics of diplomacy? o Palestinian statehood bid  Passes resolutions that are more symbolic in nature  Passes with an overwhelming majority even though it would not pass in the UNSC  Considered a diplomatic victory rather than an effective one Limitations and Weaknesses - Bias? o In General Assembly?  Privileging Palestinian positions over Israeli positions o In Secu
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