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POLI 351 (1)
Lecture

October 15

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLI 351
Professor
Jason Scott Ferrell
Semester
Fall

Description
October 15, 2012 Conflict is a result of foreign policy - shaped by elite decision makers  interested in looking at forces or factors shaping decision makers views in determining foreign policy (how those factors mentioned last week give rise to certain policy options) o terms of how to approach – keep in mind *state institutions seen as 1) transmission belts: convey preferences of the actors, 2) state institutions shape preferences, not just a form by which actors express themselves – determine what the content of what the actors thoughts or views are o 4 ways to shape preferences/skew outcome: - how institutions can have a detrimental effect on foreign policy  1) state actors wind up shaping attitudes – re: admin units, bureaucrats – shape perceptions of the situation for domestic level perceptions and perceptions of leaders. Eg. Tatesman has to make a decision, has to rely on the info that administrative units provide them – eg. Iraq war – state and military are both telling the decision makers different things.  2) institutional procedures: often be used to bias things towards one particular group over another (privilege certain groups). Eg. Suffrage/voting requirements – who’s engaged in politics?  3)agenda setting: how things are brought up before an actor – eg. Legislative initiatives in the US for Congress – stacked in particular ways so a particular thing comes up first fto dominate the discussion – if the military goes first and state department goes second, they must respond/critique but their view isn’t “running the show”  4) coercive measures of the state: conscription – may give some sort of shared identity. Mass conscription army may be more reluctant to go to war opposed to a reserve army.  German elite hesitant to extend conscription far because the army winds up reflecting the interest of the elite Gordon/Narizny  institutions of the state are a conveyor belt, state does nothing more than allow for the expression of particular interests – transparent process where actors express/construct themselves within the institutions  Both look at economic/political interest o Narizny: concerned with sectorial economic interest o Gordon: concerned with issues of industrialization o In common: provide a bottom up explanation of foreign policy – what drives foreign policy are these domestic level considerations that express themselves/are understood in these economic terms. Narizny: looking at England – interested in understanding issue of isolationism of Britain: refrain from being involved, remain neutral – or not. Equivocation of their stance relative to Germany.  In some respects, sectoral economic interests in England is what dries politics – distinction to be drawn between sectors of the economy – distinction from agrarian interests, manufacturing interests, finance interests, etc. It’s the play of these things that determine foreign policy – sensible? If this makes sense for foreign level interests, does it explain why war happens? o Looks at England, there’s a division between these sectors:  Liberal party (reps for small manufacturing groups, some businesses), Labour party – these two are aligned when it comes to foreign policy. Produce goods and want to see abroad - look to Europe for a market for their products – primarily focused on Germany *major trading partners. This coalition has a shared interests leading them to look to Europe for trade. Much more interested in cooperation (re: foreign policy), if looking at war – will be more in terms of collective security because war is disruptive of trade.  Conservatives (reps of agrarian interest, financial interests [banking and commercial interests]). Concerned with idea of empire – looking at a bigger picture, the world as a
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