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POLI 212 Lecture Notes - Authoritarianism, Planned Economy, Long Nineteenth Century

Political Science
Course Code
POLI 212
Hudson Meadwell

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JANUARY 13, 2012: The Long 19th Century Continued
Michael Howard Reading: He argues that the fact that the long nineteenth century is
a period characterized by frequent wars and domestic and political instability. He
argues that stable democracy and inter-state peace are relatively recent features of
European political history. He argues that the French Revolution is a turning point
in European politics and political development because after it things were far
different than they were in the past. He wants to identify the forces in play in France
and in Europe after the French Revolution and he refers to what he calls “the party
of movement” and the “party of order.” The conflict between the two shapes
European politics for all of the 19th and most of the 20th century. By party, he means
something broader and more diffuse than a political party, he means loosely
organized individuals and groups bound together by a shared set of values and
bound together by a shared set of political commitments. These parties are divided
by the question of how political life should be organized (in individual states and in
the larger perspective of Europe as a whole.) He argues that this division argues
political life that exists all through Europe even if it’s more visible in France. He
refers to the division between parties as a “civil war,” and it shows how the French
Revolution sets Europe on a different trajectory.
Lecture: In 1945, the long 19th century ends.
The Military Defeat of Fascism: Fascism initially is an option or alternative in
domestic politics and a challenge to democracy in the inter-war period. Fascism
could not be defeated domestically through the ballot box, and it was pushed out of
Europe as a consequence of military conflict. Fascism threatened and crowded out
democratic alternatives in inter-war years, and democratic consolidation in the
aftermath of fascist takeovers required the military defeat of fascism. A measure of
the sway or influence of fascism in Europe is what was taken to defeat.
The Occupation of Germany and Political Separation of East and West: Germany is
occupied roughly along the lines of the occupying allied forced (divided between
British and American sectors and the Soviet/Russian sector on the other). This
division becomes the division between West Germany and East Germany. At this
point the Soviet model of state socialism is exported to parts of East and Central
Europe for the first time. In the process of occupation and separation, what emerges
is a fork in historical development between East and West.
Politics in the East and West are completely different. The distinguishing features of
the Western model of political development are successful democratic
consolidation, stable territorial boundaries of states, market economies, the
disciplining and monitoring radical political option, the hegemony of liberal
democracy and the ideal form of political organization. “The long peace” is a
reference to the relations between Western European countries after the war (no
inter-state or civil war), and incrementalism as a model of political change (the long
term creation of the European Union).
The distinguishing features of the Eastern model of political development are
delayed democratic transitions, incomplete consolidation of democracy when it
emerges in East and Central Europe in the late 1980s and 1990s, development
which is not state led but subordinated the needs of the imperial centre (the Soviet
Union), states in the Soviet bloc lacked the classic marker of state sovereignty and
have less control over domestic and foreign policy and the Soviet state can intervene
in policy. Centrally planned economies, and finally, if change in the West is
incremental, in the East it specifies a pattern of long periods of stasis punctuated by
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