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Lecture 14

POLI 227 Lecture 14: Politics of Cultural Pluralism


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLI 227
Professor
Rex Brynen
Lecture
14

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Lecture 15 Politics of Cultural Pluralism Feb. 6, 2017
Midterm: up to gender section readings, lectures till gender, conferences
till that week
Identity Politics
Ethno-cultural markers
o Nationality
o Race
o Religion
o Tribe
o Language
Varying terminology: ethnicity, communalism, sectarianism, minorities
Ethnicity is a SOCIAL CONSTRUCT
o It exists because we believe it exists
o May change over time (sense of identity changes); malleable,
other factors can make certain aspects of identity come to the
forefront or fade into the background
E.g. pitting Catholics against Protestants in Ireland
Countries vary widely in terms of ethnic, religious, or other cultural
pluralism
o Papua New Guinea and Congo are the most diverse
o North Korea is the least
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Iraq:
Population potentially divided along religious and ethnic lines
o “ui Musli, “hi’ite Musli, others
o “hi’ite is ajority, “ui iority
o Most people speak Arabic, but also has Kurdish, turk.
o Kurds mostly in north, Sunni in west, Shia in southwest, Baghdad
is diverse
o These are the CURRENT sectarian splits; Sunni community in the
past was split among itself
Since 2003, conflict b/c mixed areas become less mixed; more
segregated reinforced regional and religious identities
Political effects
o Repressive order and ethnic repression under Saddam Hussein
Did't are aout “ui s. “hi’ite, Hussei as seular
o Kurdish self-go’t post 99
o Sectarian violence following US intervention in 2003
o 2005 constitution: quasi-democratic, quasi-federal, slightly
consociational political system
o continued ethno sectarian tensions
rise of ISIS
threat akes people CHOO“E “ui or “hi’ite,
polarization heightens
India
800 lang. and dialects exist (60 unrelated to Hindi); 1 of most diverse
countries
More than 1600 identifiable ethnic groups and sub-groups
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