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Lecture 13

POLI 227 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Anzus, Neoliberalism, Mp-443 Grach

Political Science
Course Code
POLI 227
Philip Oxhorn

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LECTURE - Feb 22
The Limits of Democracy
I. Citizenship as consumption is the dominant model
A. democracy is limited because of growing models of insecurity
B. Mexico did a survey of everyone who was in prison, many people said they were in
prison because they didn't have money to pya off a judge and couldn't get out fairly
C. it is important for democratic governments to spend money of political rights
II. Political Pacts or Frozen Democracies:
A. historically, the most stable democracies in developing countries because they limit
uncertainties by circumscribing the nature and parameters of the resultant democracy
III. Venezuela’s Pacted Democracy
A. 1958 Pacto de Punto Fundo
B. Very stable for a long time because oil wealth held everything together however in the
80s, the price of oil collapsed and the economy collapsed.
1. People protested low wages, 57% of the pop could only afford a meal per day. The
military said it would save the people for the government
2. 1998 Carlos Andres Perez: won presidency, he was under house arrest for
corruption but the election gave him immunity, he ran a populist regime trying to get
the people’s support, but instead of helping the economy, he just made Venezuela go
more and more into debt
IV. Illusive Goal of political Inclusion
A. Is flawed democracy better than the alternative? The brutal nature of democracy
backslides and alternatives are risky (Honduras, Thailand, Egypt)
B. the fragility of the democratic consensus: in a number of countries, when people
demanded democratization, they believed it was something worth fighting for so the
challenge is bringing a democracy that is not fragile. The danger is that people will see
democracy as irrelevant when it is fragile and it could be the problem itself when
politicians only care about themselves
C. There can be a positive role for international actors, they can sanction authoritarian
Markets vs States in Achieving Development
I. Development and Econ growth:
A. No growth means no development: In Sri Lanka, when the gov was more concerned
with equity without growth, the result was that it was unsustainable.
1. growth minimizes distributional conflicts
2. minimal expectation of the poor need to be met: opportunities, food, shelter
a) this is still not sufficient
B. wether the money trickles down (giving money all the way to the poor) or not, it needs to
be distributed in a way that is inclusive to everybody ensuring that there is growth and
that this growth affects everyone in a positive way
C. Role of the private sector and of the state to promote equality
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