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Lecture 19

POLI 227 Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Hard Power, Conditionality

Political Science
Course Code
POLI 227
Philip Oxhorn

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LECTURE - March 23
South-South Relations — A new world order?
I. New institutions, a new reality?
A. the main institutions at the global level are all part of the legacy of colonialism, WWII, and the
Cold War —> the world has changed in fundamental ways that haven't been reflected in global
B. There is a new balance of power: Brazil, Russia, China…BRIC countries have a greater
importance today but don't have their corresponding influence on the international system
C. the institutions that are over 50 years old, may not be useful for the present global challenges
1. the rise of non-state actors: new violence, terrorism, drug cartels and other criminal activity
are creating challenges at the global level that need new institutions for
2. human rights groups and NGOs have a larger level of influence —> non state foundations
and actors that play a huge part today and need to be recognized
D. Old challenges: global poverty, has gone down but will still take at least 30 years to get rid of
inequality and extreme poverty
1. decolonization: the long-lasting effects of colonization are still there
II. New Visions and perspectives
A. New institutions don't guarantee the changes we need: by opening up the system and bringing in
the BRIC countries, will the dynamics actually change?
1. Brazil: what effect would it have if it had the international influence it wants? Not much
because it’s international policy isn't very different from the West’s
2. China: is it repeating Western theory? China represents what Lenin calls neo imperialism
a) Is there a revolution in the making? Would it change the past on its head and create a new
order with new ideas? Will there be a dispersion of knowledge or will it stay in the
b) Will the world be seen differently? It’s not only bringing in new actors, but looking at the
role they will play and seeing if it will just be new names and faces or a new way of
running things as well
III. The stakes are high
A. POWER: political economy perspective: if power is redistributed, what are the consequences of
that? Who participates and how? —> will it be the same dynamics or will there be a new
definition of power (not only soft or hard power but new rules for a new game) —> non-western
players, will their knowledge have a commencer impact on the global problems?
B. GOAL: maximize the good and minimize the negative, unprecedented repeat for human rights
globally, better to have a human discourse than not, recognizing the good is minimizing the
economic and political instability to ensure there wont be another major recession etc
C. What kind of world order do we want and who decides? Do we want it to be bigger or different?
IV. The BRIC countries
A. came about in 2009 when these countries said they wanted a greater international voice after rate
great recession that barely affected the global South
1. One of the changes made was the G20, G7 expanded to include the BRIC countries, is this a
bandaid answer? Yes because the power didn't change, they are still vulnerable and under the
West’s power
2. CHINA: represents the idea of the aspiring superpower through its size and economic power
playing a decisive role in the international system —> irony in the fact that China has had a
veto in the UN security (already has the most power there even though it is demanding power
else where)
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