POLI 227 Lecture Notes - Small Arms Trade, Security Sector Governance And Reform, Demining
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MARCH 21, 2012:
Coup-proofing: How can developing democracies reduce the risk of military
o Disband army (Costa Rica), weaken it (cut budget, decrease numbers)
The problem with this is that it could make the military angry and make
them want to have a coup. It is much better to do it slowly.
o Buy it off- the downside is that the military gets extra influence
o Penetrate it with loyalists (China, Soviet Union, etc.).
Syrians do this-you find a disproportionate number of the religious minority
in the army (especially the officer core).
o Intelligence apparatus (Syria- each branch in the military spies on the other
branches- this is an example of the “fox” style of neo-patrimonialism),
political officers (China), counterbalance (Saudi Arabia, which has a national
guard recruited by the most loyal people)
o Special loyalties (Jordan)
o External support (Philippines)
o Strengthen democratic institutions, civil society (Chile)
o Highlight the abuses of the past (this delegitimizes the military as a political
o Appointing people who you don’t trust to non combat positions, such as
ambassadors or logistical positions.
o Develop a civilian capacity so that you don’t rely on the military to study
military affairs- ex. A civilian defense minister or military analysts.
Demilitarization (after civil conflict)
ex) How does Libya demilitarize? There are armed militias in every city.
Demilitarization is not currently happening in Libya.
o Cantonment: the forces are disengaged, moved away from each other
o Demobilization: formally discharge them from military service
o Reintegration into civilian life so they can make the transition to being
o Other measures
Security sector reform
Dealing with small arms proliferation (arms in the hands of civilians)
Broad definition includes the violent transfer of political power, and insurgency
The narrow definition entails:
o Violent transfer of political power AND fundamental social transformation
o French Revolution (1789), Russian Revolution (1917), Chinese Revolution
Where, why and when do revolutions occur? (What are the conditions?) They occur
o The ruled revolt
o The rulers can no longer continue to rule
You need both of the above conditions- when analyzing revolution it is
usually focused on the protesters/uprising, when the weakness of the
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