POLI 227 Lecture 9: Demographics of Development: Urban and rural challenge

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27 Jul 2016
Course
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Demographics of Development: Urban & Rural
challenge 19:29
If the size of countries reflected their populations:
China- massive precedence/ india too
Canada is just a little red line
Size of state-extent to which government can extend education/wealth-were
is that used/other times the opposite- when population can contribute to
modernization- the role of population.
Questions:
1)Where/why do we see urban/rural gaps? We see an urban divide most
places but it depends where.
2)How do issues of inequality and poverty affect rural and urban standards
of living? Rural areas generally tend to be more poor, but inequity/the gap
between rich and poor is more stark in urban areas. The places with the
most rural strike is where inequity is present.
Is poverty the correlator we should look at? Or relative deprivation-being
poor in relation to someone else or absolute poverty?
3)To what extent are rural and urban dwellers politically active?
-Does urbanization lead to political development or instability?
4)What is the youth bulge? Why has it helped some states but hurt others?-
correlated with high unemployment, instability and conflict-negative
outcomes so to speak.
Urbanization:
Right now most dadsets show urbal and rural to be 50/50- that is pretty
much where we were but it is steadily increasing, by 2025- we will see a
increasing urbanization
Case study: Urban migration in china:
because of urban to rural migration- changed china
chinese new year- people migrated to urban areas, going home- mainly from
major population centers like sheng hai- major urban concentration going
back
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Chinese new year Chunyun:
Est. 3.6 billion journeys by over 1.2 million urban workers and students from
cities back to provinces(rural area) for lunar new year.
Approx. 40 days starts- 2 weeks before LNY
Largest human migration on the planet
Visualized leaving some kind of life behind- that happens once a year, it is
definitely shifted economically but socially it has an effect as well- many
adults will go to citys to work and often kids will stay in rural/province areas
and be raised by another relative- it is affecting the social fabric/dynamic of
it aswell
Changing the cultural dynamic
Challenge with the social fabric and family dynamic that changes with
urbanization- micro level more
Last train home: document the migration- ended up shadowing a family that
had the dynamic where the parents had gone to shang hai to work in
factorys, sending money back to kids to get an education and have a
different future.
Urban Challenges:
-Unemployment:
leave family and go to the city, and often cannot find a job
public sector v. informal economy: women are particularly overrepresented-
jobs that are essentially over the table, not properly verified work like
working on the street like women going into the sex trade or a add-hawk
basis like trying to do whatever they can find or sell. No job security or
guarantee.
-Struggle for housing:
rents and costs are living are a lot more expensive than rural areas
Subsidized housing- common in western states as well, in most developing
states it usually doesn’t work out as the best model- too many qualify for it,
the state doesn’t have the capacity to build complete houses with the
minimum standards for that many people
Social mobility- harder to move out of that- the areas become centers for
crime in subsidized housing
Spontaneous/self-built shelter(shantytowns): in the absence of government
intervention, they build whatever they can- usually slum areas- scrapping
together materials to build whatever they can(brazil)
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Incremental housing/sites and services program: mixture of subsidized
house and the self-built shelter. The state will allocate a certain amount of
land, that can be used by those without proper housing. Identifying a place
where shelter can be built- they sometimes provide some infrastructure- like
some access to electricy(utility board- give access)- some kind of sanitation,
water system- basic infrastructure pieces put in place and land is reserved.
Sometimes have basic structures like a roof- very basic shelter and the idea
is that people can use it and create their own space within it. Imperically,
shown as a bit more effective and more cost-effective for the state, better
received by people too.
-Crime:
Correlates with income inequality(over poverty).
Cities with high income inequality and poverty- crime is more with
inequality, where rich and poor come into close contact with eachother
“government crime?”- corruption and intimidation
-urban areas tend to be better off on a basic needs level, still a struggle for
clean water and issues of overcrowding in urban slums especially.
-Waste management/sanitation- basic issue in states that don’t have funding
or capacity to develop sewing or sanitation systems
Youth unemployment:
Demographic with the most unemployment in cities is the youth. Families
migrating to citys, kids may come alone- high youth and unemployment
across the globe but mostly in conflict places like the middle east and Africa-
more than 1 in 4.
Youth may be 18-35 in international relations, but here it is up to 24
Unemployment includes education and work
The graph predicted that central Europe would go down- but it has risen
Continues to be a challenge especially in the youth bulge countries.
Youth bulge:
60% of population is under the age of 30- regionally, the area that tends to
have the most is middle east and Africa. This is also the region with the
highest
Countries- Uganda has the highest
The lowest- Japan/ Greece, Germany, Italy tend to be low too.
Concentration in sub-saharan Africa and middle east
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