February 26th, End of WWI
Russians have revolution, cut a separate peace in Germany
-Russia, war equals revolution, drop out of the war to settle domestic shit, sue for peace with
Germany. Internationally, hoping that the revolution would spread outward, good reason in the context
of Germany. Harsh peace settlement with Germany (Brest-Litovsk), loose a lot of eastern Europe.
-Germany is realizing probably wont win, so can sue for peace on the Western front or renew
attack. Choose the storm trooper offensive.
-Why Germany why? Militarily, in some sense are running the nation as the war goes on, kaiser
gets excluded from decision making processes. End up with a semi-exclusionary regime type that
reflects the interests of the military. Thought that troops from the eastern front would be able to break
the deadlock (almost succeeds, but the arrival of the american troops lets england commit all it's troops
to the western front and win)
-by russia folding, you find the junkers are satisfied. Now the interests of the industrialists have
been met, so have an incentive to continue the war. Military reason and economic reason to continue
the war. Also, provide resources.
-France might have been open for negotiation about some of the territories, but Britain would
not be. England still attached to Belgium
-Alliances wind up collapsing, Austria sues for a separate peace on September 10, 1919, so does
turkey and Bulgaria.
-Think about the French Revolution, how it goes both to outside france and thn affects inside
France. Think about war within and without states, have a war that prompts a revolution in Germany,
which affects the outside. Domestic level stability and international relations, the overtures made to
Woodrow wilson. Wilson makes peace conditional on internal reform in germany (14 points), makes
the internal reform of the German political institution one of the war aims of the Allies.
-The militarism of the German politics, autocracy, and nationalism of Germany are highlighted
by Wilson as the cause of the war, and so for peace to be achieved have to reforms these things.
-Germany, political and economic elite would not be cool with the reforms. They are willing to
allow for reform of a sort, but reform that is guided from above, not the sort driven by popular politics
as was in France. There is a centralization of power, and reform is initiated as a response to the
demands of the entente, wind-up inviting centralist and moderate parties to participate in the
government, but only the moderates. The more populace parties are still barred. October 3rd, 1918 there
is a new government formed but the Chancellor. Germany promised the Entente that decisions would
be carried out by a popular government. Offer acceptance the 14 points when they have reformed the
-Kind of conceding to have lost the war. Promise full sufferance and equality, leader no longer
insulated from the Reichstag, ans the decision to make war and peace made by parliament. Wilson still
not okay with this, takes issue with continued strength of the Kaiser. Sends a note, making clear that the
capitulation of Germany is not enough, the reforms don't go far enough and there;s a push to remove
the Kaiser from office.
-Kaiser concedes military power, proclaim to have established a constitutional monarchy.
Previously, the condition of peace had been domestic level stability (after the French Rev.) had been
having a monarchy back in power, even the concert of Europe had all monarchs. But with 14 points, the
idea that democratic institutions and popular government are the most important. War is used to bring
about absolutism in Germany, but ultimately leads to the democratic transformation of Germany too.
-However, naval rebellion in october 28 in kiel, that wants a last ditch attack on the British navy
but the naval troops don't cooperate and the soldiers from the army are sent to put this down.
-Germany descends into a sort of de facto civil war. The kaiser concedes and Reichstag declares
Russians have revolution, cut a separate peace in germany. Russia, war equals revolution, drop out of the war to settle domestic shit, sue for peace with. Internationally, hoping that the revolution would spread outward, good reason in the context of germany. Harsh peace settlement with germany (brest-litovsk), loose a lot of eastern europe. Germany is realizing probably wont win, so can sue for peace on the western front or renew attack. Militarily, in some sense are running the nation as the war goes on, kaiser gets excluded from decision making processes. End up with a semi-exclusionary regime type that reflects the interests of the military. Thought that troops from the eastern front would be able to break the deadlock (almost succeeds, but the arrival of the american troops lets england commit all it"s troops to the western front and win) By russia folding, you find the junkers are satisfied.