POLI 364 Lecture Notes - Utopia, Presupposition, Statism

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April 10
Empire
Not a parallel with autonomist periodization of the state.
Rather, it is the assumption of the modern state's impossibility.
The state aspires to be stabilization, a static condition. Different states have tried
to achieve this through different techniques.
Absolutist -> Sovereignty/Autonomy
Liberal -> Legal order
Welfarist -> Social Security
These three forms of the state are not primarily historial periods for Tiqqun (they
just happen to line up with periods of history.)
However, a contradiction arises in the desire on the part of the state for stability,
and their attempt to achieve this by mobilizing the masses.
For Tiqqun, the state has never existed.
The promise of the state was to produce an international order.
The state is impossible because the foreign state is also present within the
domestic state.
Empire is the elevation of the techniques of control on the part of the state above
the state itself. These techniques are no longer institutionalized, insofar as it does
not confine itself to an institution such as the state. Their use is ubiquitous and
borderless (ex. discipline.)
Thus, with the dissolution of the state, the practises are the only way of achieving
order. In other words, order must be produced super-nationally (as opposed to being
produced nationally or internationally.)
Biopower emphasizes the technique, not the individual who employs the technique.
It observes the control “of the life process as a form of power.”
With Empire/Biopolitical regimes, every death is a murder (as opposed to natural.)
This is because that everything which may be a cause of death has been made a
statistic, has been quantified, and states knowing make policy choices in the
knowledge that X deaths will result.
Bureaucracy is the administration of stupidity, where stupidity means the ignorance
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