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Lecture 26

PSYC 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 26: Mental Disorder, Amygdala, Lemonade


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Daniel Levitin
Lecture
26

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frontal+ brain+ regions+ involved+ in+ processing+ specific+ types+ of+ information+ is+ associated+ with+
better+memory+for+that+type+of+information.++
The+ medial+ prefrontal+ cortex+ is+ selectively+ active+ when+ people+ think+ about+ themselves,+ thus+
activity+ in+ this+ region+ predicts+ memory+ for+ information+ encoded+ about+ the+ self,+ but+ not+ for+
information+encoding+about+others.++
The+ frontal+ lobes+ might+ also+ play+ a+ role+ in+ WM,+ because+ patients+ with+ damage+ to+ this+ region+
have+difficulty+following+plans+or+goals,+and+monkeys+with+frontal+lesions+have+impaired+WM.+
Frontal+regions+become+active+when+info+is+retrieved+from+the+LTM+into+WM+or+encoded+from+
WM+into+LTM.+The+frontal+lobe+and+medial+temporal+lobes+work+together+to+consolidate+storage+
of+the+lecture+in+our+LT+declarative+memory.++
Neurochemistry(underlies(memory(
As+ memories+ are+ consolidated,+ neurones+ link+ into+ distributed+ networks,+ and+ those+ networks+
become+ linked.+ Various+ neurotransmitters,+ known+ as+ memory+ modulators,+ can+ weaken+ or+
enhance+memory.+
Neurochemistry(indicates(the(meaningfulness(of(stimuli(
Important+ events+ lead+ to+ neurochemical+ changes+ that+ produce+ emotion,+ which+ make+ those+
events+likely+to+be+stored+in+memory.+Epinephrine+jolts+tells+us+to+remember+(excitement).+This+
hormone+is+secreted+in+the+bloodstream+from+adrenal+glands,+located+near+the+kidneys,+thus+it+
doesn’t+affect+memory+directly.+Researchers+initially+believed+that+it+affected+memory+because+it+
causes+glucose+release,+which+then+enters+the+brain+and+influences+memory+storage.+
When+ we+ learn+ something+ new,+ we+ drain+ glucose+ from+ key+ parts+ of+ the+ brain+ (hippocampus)+
that+ are+ associated+ with+ memory+ and+ learning.+ (elderly+ people+ who+ drank+ lemonade)it+ is+
complex+carbohydrates+that+improve+the+brain’s+glucose+availability.++
The(amygdala(and(the(neurochemistry(of(emotion(
Any+arousing+event+causes+greater+activity+of+norepinephrine+receptors,+which+strengthens+the+
memory+of+that+event.+The+amygdala+contains+such+ receptors.+ Emotional+memories+affect+the+
right+ amygdala+ in+ men+ and+ the+ left+ one+ in+ women,+ who+ have+ a+ better+ memory+ for+ emotional+
events.++
Canli:+ showed+ men+ and+ women+ picture:+ women+ remembered+ emotional+ pictures+ better+ and+
their+ emotional+ amygdala+response+ was+ also+ greater.+ Women+ are+ more+ prone+ then+ men+ to+
depression.+
Why+ sex+ matters+ in+ neuroscience+ lists+ many+ reason+ for+ studying+ sex+ differences+ in+ brain+
structure+ and+ function+ to+ understand+ brain+ disorders+ and+ normal+ brain+ functioning.+ Men+ and+
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