PSYC 100 Lecture Notes - Mary Whiton Calkins, American Psychological Association, B. F. Skinner

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Published on 19 Nov 2012
Department
Course
Psychology 100 9/16/2012 8:18:00 AM
Chapter I The Science of Psychology
1.1 What is psychology?
The study of mind, brain and behavior.
How the two are connected.
It‟s technically a science.
Psychology is about you and I.
o Personally relevant.
o Relevant to us all.
Human behavior in real life contexts.
Determined by human interaction.
Psychological processes can surprise us it‟s not just common sense!
OPPORTUNITIES FOR PEOPLE WITH GRADUATE DEGREES IN
PSYCHOLOGY ARE EXPECTED TO GROW APPROXIMATELY 12%
BETWEEN 2009 AND 2018!!! HOPE IS THERE!
Humans are intuitive psychologists:
Fact or fiction?
o We have to systematically evaluate information to reach
reasonable conclusions.
What am I supposed to believe?
What‟s the evidence?
Example of Critical Thinking:
1. A statement is made based on some evidence.
2. You carry out other experiments regarding the statement.
3. A FINAL conclusion is made about the statement.
1.2 The Scientific Foundations of Psychology:
Psychology:
Dated back to 1870s.
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Originated in philosophy Chinese, Muslim philosophers (ex.
Confucius).
19th century emerged as a scientific discipline.
Nature/ Nurture Debate:
Innate or cultural phenomenon?
Influence each other and is inseparable.
Mind/body problems Separate and distinct?
Introspection:
Wilhelm Wundt first psychological laboratory.
John Stuart argued psychology should be a science of
observation and experiment.
Introspection you can absorb behavior, but you can‟t determine
the cognitive processes.
o You have to revert it back to yourself what‟s going on in
your head?
o Used to study consciousness (self awareness).
o ISSUE WITH INTROSPECTION: experience is subjective,
reporting of the experience changes the experience itself.
Structuralism Edward Titchener Breaking down into basic
underlying components.
Consciousness FIRST MAJOR DEBATE BETWEEN
PSYCHOLOGISTS!
o Psychologists thought consciousness was not always present
debated about it.
Functionalism:
William James
o Argued the mind consisted of a stream of consciousness
o Looked at the big picture not just components but what it
all led to.
Consciousness could not be frozen in time, broken down
and analyzed- its a constant flow.
Functionalism examining the functions of the mind
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Evolutionary theory Charles Darwin:
Adaptation genes pass along from generation to generation.
Natural selection mutations facilitate survival.
Survival of the fittest better adapted survive, less adapted die
off.
Gestalt Theory whole of conscious experience is different from the sum of
its parts.
Women Psychology Field:
Mary Whiton Calkins:
o 1st woman president of the American Psychological
Association despite no PhD.
Margret Flow Washburn:
o First woman with Psych PhD.
o 2nd woman president of the American Psychological
Association.
Sigmund Freud:
Mental processes below the level of awareness determine much of
human behavior.
o Introduced notion of unconscious.
Developed psychoanalysis
o Unconscious forces can produce discomfort in the conscious
sense.
Impulses, tendencies that you act upon, but not really sure why.
Behaviorism:
John B. Watson:
Challenged focus on conscious and unconscious mental processes.
o Developed behaviorism:
Environmental stimuli affect behavioral responses.
Behavior is learned (nurture).
B.F. Skinner:
Mantle of behaviorism:
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