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Lecture 16

Lecture 16 - Mar 12.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 211
Professor
Yogita Chudasama
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC211 Lecture 16 - Mar. 12 What Is Learning and Memory: • Learning refers to the process by which experiences change our nervous system. Learning can: • Involve specific relations between stimuli in the environment • Involve recognition and categorization of objects and situations • Involves information about events in the world • Involve skilled actions • Memory refers to the process that encodes, stores and retrieves the learning experience. Memories: • Can be transient or durable Can be consciously (explicitly) declared or involve implicit procedures • Associative Learning: Classical Conditioning • Have a personal frame of reference Permits a form of time-travel !  In classical (Pavlovian) conditioning, a stimulus that previously had • no effect on behaviour becomes able to evoke a reflexive • Are not equally vulnerable to disease and disruption Habituation is a Simple Form of Learning: ‘conditioned’ response. • The aplysia is an invertebrate sea slug with a a simple nervous system (20,000 neurons) • The Aplysia has a large gill for respiration, and a siphon through which it expels water !  The procedure involves the repeated pairing of two stimuli. • If the siphon is lightly touched, the gill withdraws reflexively During Conditioning/training • Repeated touching with a tactile stimulus reduces the magnitude of the reflex until the Aplysia ignores the touch stimulus Neutral Unconditioned Unconditioned • This waning of sensitivity to repeated stimulation is known as habituation + Associative Learning: stimulus stimulus response • In associative learning, the experimenter arranges a relationship between two eventsociative Learning: Classical Conditioning • Learning is the ability to learn to perform a behaviour in the presence of a particular stimulusavlovian) conditioning, a stimulus that previously had no effect on behaviour becomes able to evoke a reflexive Eye Blink • This type of learning involves connections between circuits involved in perceptio‘conditioned’ response. movement • The resulting behaviour can be a reflexive response (e.g. Salivation or eyeblink) or a complicated sequence of previously !  The procedure involves the repeated pairing of two stimuli. learned movements After Conditioning • Two major categories of associative learning: During Conditioning/training Classical conditioning Neutral ConditiUnconditioned Unconditioned Conditioned • stimulus stimulusstimulus response response • Instrumental conditioning Associative Learning: Classical Conditioning Tone + Air Puff Eye Blink • In classical (Pavlovian) conditioning, a stimulus that previously Tone Eye Blink had no effect on behaviour becomes able to evoke a reflexive After Conditioning ‘conditioned’ response • The procedure involves the repeated pairing of two stimuli Conditioned Conditioned stimulus response Neural Circuit of Classical Conditioning: • We assume: Tone Eye Blink • The UCS is detected by a single neuron in the somatosensory Neural Circuit of Classical Conditioning system !  We assume: • The CS is detected by a single neuron in the auditory system • The CR is controlled by a single neuron in the motor system - The UCS is detected by a Neural Circuit of Classical Conditioning single neuron in the • When action potential reaches synapse T, the EPSP is too weak to make the !  We assume: neuron fire - The UCS is detected by a somatosensory system. single neuron in the • Synapse P is a strong synapse because a blink is a defensive reflex somatosensory system. -  The CS is detected by a • For conditioning, the CS must be followed almost immediately by the UCS (UCS) The Hebb Rule: (UCS) -  The CS is detected(CR)a single neuron in the auditory (CR) single neuron in the auditory system. • The Hebb Rule states that the cellular bassi of learning involves the system. strengthening of a synapse that is repeatedly active when the postsynaptic(CS) (CS) -  The CR is controlled by a-  The CR is controlled by a neuron fires singe neuron in the motor Associative Learning: Instrumental Conditioning system. singe neuron in the motor system. • In instrumental (operant) conditioning, the animal adjusts its behaviour !  When action potential reaches synapse T, the EPSP is too weak to according to the consequences of that behaviour make the! eurWhen action potential reaches synapse T, the EPSP is too weak to • If the learned behaviour is followed by favourable consequences, it will be strengthened (more likely to occur). If thelink is a defensive reflex. behaviour is followed by negative consequences, it will be weakened (less likely to occur) -  For conditioning, the CS must be followed almost immediately by the • The procedure involves the association between a stimulus and a response (but UCS. the response and the outcome/reward)e because a blink is a defensive reflex. -  For conditioning, the CS must be followed almost immediately by the UCS. 3 followed by negative consequences, it will be weakened (less likely to occur). Associative Learning: Instrumental Conditioning !!  In instrumental (operant) conditioning, the animal adjusts itsa behaviour according to the consequences of that behaviour. !  If the learned behaviour is followed by favourable consequences, it will be be strengthened (more likely to occur). If it the behaviour is The Hebb Rule (D.O. Hebb, 1949) The Hebb RuOutcome (D.O. Hebb, 1949) followed by negative consequences, it will be weakened (less likely Stimulusur). Response (Reinforcing or !  The Hebb Rule states that the cellular basis of learning involves thetes thatPunishing)lar basis of learning involves the !  The procedure involves the associatstrengthening of a synapse that is repeatedly active when the strengthening of response (but also the response and the outcome/reward). postsynaptic neuron firesf Instrumental Conditioningpostsynaptic neuron fires Outcome Stimulus Response (Reinforcing or Punishing) (UCS) (UCS) (CR) Neural Model of Instrumental Conditioning (CS) (CS) Neural Model of Instrumental Conditioning The Hebb Rule (D.O. Hebb, 1949) !  The Hebb Rule states that the cellular basis of learning involves the !  The process of reinforcement strengthens a connection between strengthening of a synapse that is repeatedly active when the postsynaptic neu•oThe process of reinforcement strengthens a connection between neural circuits involved in perception (sigh of the level) and !  Tthose involved in movement (the act of level pressing)etween pressing).cuits involved in perception (sight of the lever) and those Percepinvolved and those involved in movement (the act of lever • Perceptual learning is the ability to learn to recognize stimuli that have been seen before pressing). • The primary function of perceptual learning is to recognize and identify objects (including members of our own species) and situations • If we cannot recognize something, we are unable to behave in response to it (UCS) • We learn to recognize by visual appearance, sounds, smells, movements • Learning to recognize complex visual or auditory stimuli involves changes in the visual and auditor5 association cortices, respectively 5 (CS) Motor Learning: • Motor learning involves learning to make a new response. It cannot occur without sensory guidance from the environment • Most skilled movements involve interactions with the environment: bicycles, rackets, knitting needles, etc. • Movements that we make ourselves (e.g. Dance steps) involve feedback from joints, vestibular system, eyes and contact between the feet and the floor 4 Learning Involves Perceptual, Associative and Motor Components Learning Involves Perceptual, Associative and Motor Components: Relational Learning: • Learning abou
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