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Summery of PSYC books.docx

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PSYC 211
Yogita Chaudasama

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Summery of PSYC Chapter 1 1/27/2013 12:32:00 PM Introduction - Early in time, people believe that they posse mind, soul, spirit. - the Mind-Body question: what role does the mind play? Does it control the nervous system? Is it a part of the nervous system? It is physical and tangible, like the rest of the body, or it is a spirit that will always remain hidden? - Dualism: belief in the dual nature of reality. Mind and body are separate; the body is made of ordinary matter, but the mind is not. - Monism: belief that everything in the universe consists of matter and energy and that mind is a phenomenon produced by the workings of the nervous system (mind is a byproduct of our nervous system) - Our sense organ and our lab instruments are manifestation of the physical world: matter and energy. Blindsight: it is a phenomena that is seen after partial damage to the mammalian visual system on one side of the brain - definition: several phenomena involving the human brain provide insight (洞察力)into the nature of consciousness. One of these phenomena, cause by damage to a particular part of the brain is known as bindsight.---if damaged, cannot perceive the world into conscious. - the human brain contain 2 mechanism of vision: the case is that the patient is blind, but he can still reaching things by using his the primitive visual system  mammalian system: we can perceive the world around us.  Primitive visual system: involve in frogs and fish. Mainly fct is to control eye movements and bringing our attention to sudden movement that occur out of our visual system. - visual information can control behavior without producing a conscious sensation. The phenomena of blindsight tells that consciousness is not a general property of all part of brain. Only the mammalian visual system in the human brain has direct connections with the parts of the parts of the brain responsible for consciousness. Split brain - parts of the brain involved in verbal behavior is responsible for consciousness. - the left hemisphere control speech. Cut the corpus callosum in epileptic seizure will result in: patient can understand conversation, but he cannot talk.  EX: The left brain process smell info. If we cut the corpus callosum, and we take a rose to the right nose, the person will not smell the odor since the 2 hemispheres are disconnected. If we ask the patient to take the object corresponding to the odor by using the left hand, it is ok. But patient fail to do so with right hand because the right hemisphere do not distinguish odor. - we become conscious only if the info enter the part of the brain responsible for verbal communication (on the left hemisphere) Unilateral Neglect - due to the damage to the cortex of the parietal lobe - the parietal lobe:  receive info from skin, muscle, joint, internal organ, part of inner ear, and visual/auditory info  concern with body position and balance  put movement of body parts together regarding the demand of the environment---perceive the world and act with body The nature of behavioral neuroscience - behavioral neuroscience was formerly known as physiological psychology The goal of research - scientific explanation takes two forms: generalization and reduction. All scientist deal with generalization  generalization: the classification of phenomena according to their essential features so that general laws can be formulated--- tradition method of psychology  reduction: the description of phenomena in terms of more basic physical processes---physiological events - the task of the behavioral neuroscientist is to explain behavior by studying the physiological processes that control it. They cannot use reduction because same behavior can be induced by different physiological processes. - physiological mechanism can tell us something about the psychological processes; this relationship is true of complex such as language, memory and mood Biological root of behavioral neuroscience - Hippocrate says that BRAIN is responsible for through and emotions, but not the heart. - Aristotle says that BRAIN serve to cool the passions of the heart. - Galen is not agree with Aristotle for 2 reason: BRAIN is not close to heart and it has other connections with other sensory nerves. - Descartes (dualism) assume that  world is a mechanical entity, and set up by GOD.  Animal and human are machines that controlled by environmental stimuli.  Some movements are involuntary---reflexes. They are cause by environmental energy reflect back to CNS, and CNS cause muscle contraction.  A link exist btw mind and brain. Mind control the body movements, and brain is the manager to make body move in order to respond to mind.  Brain has hollow chambers filled with fluid  The body mind interaction in the PINEAL BODY (on top of the brain stem). Mind decide an action, it will tilt pineal body which will then pressurize the fluid-- pineal body cause fluid flow to nerves- nerve cause muscle contraction -Luigi Galvani: nerve and muscle still contacting even through detached from the body. - Johannes Muller:  understanding of the working of the body would be achieved only by removing or isolating animals organs, testing their responses to various chemicals, and otherwise altering the environment to see how the organ responded.  All nerve carry electrical impulse, but different nerves will perform different action  Experimental ablation: remove various parts of animals’ brains and observe their behavior. See what they cannot do, we will know the fct of the missing part of the brain. - Brocas’ area: necessary for speech - primary motor cortex: stimulation f different portions of a specific region of the brain caused contraction of specific muscle on the opposite side of the body. - Hekmholtz: measure the speed of nerve conduction, much slower than a wire. Natural Selection and Evolution - Darwin formulated the principle of MATURAL SELECTION and EVOLUTION, which revolutionized biology  all of an organism’s characteristics (structure, function, coloration, behavior) have FUNCTIONAL significance  his theory give rise to FUNCTIONALISM, a belief that characteristics of living organisms perform useful functions.---we cannot say that any physiological mechanisms of living organisms have a PURPOSE, but they have a FUNCTION  EX: Camouflage: the wing of a butterfly when folded look like the bulk and a tree. When a bird approach it, it open the wing and there are 2 eye spots on the wings which prevent the bird from eating the butterfly.-----NATURAL SELECTION (this is responsible for the development of the species).  If an individual’s characteristics permit it to reproduce more successfully, some of the individual’s offspring will inherit the favorable characteristics and will themselves produce more offspring. And that characteristic will be more prevalent in that species.  Mutation: accidental changes in the chromosomes of sperm or eggs that joint together and develop into new organism. Most of the mutation are harmful, offspring dies. Only a small portion is SLECTIVE ADVANTAGE to the organism. This could be resistance to disease, ability to digest new kind of food, etc. This treat will pass onto the next generations.  Effect of these physical alternation can be seen in organism behavior, so the process of natural selection act on behavior indirectly. Evolution (develop gradually) and the Human Species - the process of evolution is a gradual change in the structure and physiology of plant and animals species as a result of natural selection - SYNSAPSIDS is the ancestor of today’s mammals st - the 1 PRIMATE were small and preyed on insects and small cold-blood vertebrate. - Large species develop forward-facing eyes to facilitate locomotion and the capture of prey. - the only hominids besides human who have survived: chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.  Human and chimpanzee: 1% difference in DNA  Homo erectus- Homo neanderthalis- Homo Sapiens Evolution of Large Brain - characteristics of humans:  agile hands, color vision, mastery of fire, upright posture, bipedalism  linguistic abilities (require large brain): enable them to combine collective knowledge of all the member, pass info to next generation, establish civilization--- help them to become the dominant species  the neural circuit of human brain can be modified with experience. - BRAIN:  Bigger body require bigger brains, the size of the brain does not have to go up proportionally with that of the body  The brain size of nonhuman hominids increase very little with size: a gorilla weights almost 3X as a chimpanzee, but their brain size is only 29% more  brain also vary in number of neurons that control brain development: large primate contain more neurons per gram than rodent brain do.  In human, the brain is still growing after birth (weight: 350g 100 millions neurons)  The fetal skulls are more similar than those of the adults compare to chimpanzee. Ethical issues in Research with animals - research with animals= evaluation of the benefits the research has to human - animal use in research is necessary in terms of human progression: vaccine, treatments for disease, medications, etc. - cannot replace animals with tissue culture or computer: no way to study behavioral problems such as addictions in tissue cultures, nor can we program a computer to stimulate the workings of an animal’s nervous systems. Careers in Neuroscience - Behavioral Neuroscience: study all behavioral phenomena that can be observed in nonhuman animals (some study human), using non invasive physiological research methods. They want to understand the physiology of behavior: the role of the nervous system when interact with the rest of body. - the study are done as sensory processes: aggressive behavior, sexual behavior, parental behavior, learning and memory. - they also study animal models of disorders that afflict humans such as anxiety, depression, obsession, compulsion, phobias, psychosomatic illness, schizophrenia Summery of PSYC Chapter 2 1/27/2013 12:32:00 PM - LOCAL interneuron form circuits with nearby neurons and analyze small pieces of info. RELAY interneuron connect circuits of local interneurons in one region of the brain with those in other region. - the NS consist of 2 divisions: CNS (brain and SP they are encased by skull ad the spinal column) and PNS (periphery nerves of most sensory organs). Cells of the Nervous System - NEURON info processing and info transmitting  many shape and varies in terms of what job they perform  consist of: cell body (soma), dendrites; axons, terminal buttons. o SOMA: contain the nucleus and provide life process of the cell. The shape varies depending the type of neurons o DENDRITES: neurons talk to each other, and the dendrites are the recipients of these messages. The message are transmitted across SYNAPSE (junction btw the cell terminals). Communication is always unidirectional from terminals to the next cell membrane. o AXON: long tube, and covered by myelin sheath, carry info form cell some to terminals.  Basic message is ACTION POTENTIAL which start at the end of the axon next to the cell body and travel to the terminals  Three types of axons:  1. Most common in CNS: multipolar axons: somatic membrane gives rise to one axon but many dendritic trees  2. Bipolar axons: communicate with CNS. One axon and one dendritic tree, sue to sensory axon  3. Unipolar axons: has one branch leaving the cell soma and give rise to branch, one serve as axon and one is dendritic tree. It detect the sensory info particular: touch, temperature change, any events that affect the skin, joints, muscle and internal organs.  Nerves are bundles of many thousand of individual fibers, all wrapped in a tough protective membrane. o Terminal Buttons: release neurotransmitters when AP travelling down the axons. neurotransmitters could be excitatory or inhibitory (may activate or inhibit the receiving the cell) - INTERNAL STRUCTURE of NEURON  the membrane: consist of 2 layer of lipid molecules  different proteins with different fcts are imbedded inside o proteins can detect outside environment, control access of other things into the cell, transporter, exchange nutrients o proteins serve as enzyme (catalyst) that can control chemical rxns.  the nucleus: responsible for production of ribosomes which is involved in proteins synthesis. The chromosome contain genetic info, once activated, they produce mRNA. When mRNA leave the nucleus and attach to ribosome, protein synthesis occur. o 1.5% of our DNA encode for gene o other are junk DNA, but they have special fcts in cell. When they are transcribed into RNA, they become non- coding RNA, and will be cut away in the process. They form the spliceosome. Non-coding RNA regulate gene expression  Cytoplasm: jelly like, and suspended organelles are found in cytoplasm  Mitochondria: o Form a double membrane, inside the cell, it has cristae o Extraction of energy and breakdown of nutrients are taking place on the cristae. o Cell provide mitochondria nutrients, and mitochondria provide cell with ATP  ER: serve as a storage reservoir and as a channel for transporting chemicals through the cytoplasm o Rough ER: contain ribosome, the rough ER will leave the cell or become part of cell membrane when protein in ribosome go out of the cell o Smooth ER: provide channels for separation of cells involved in various cellular processes. Lipid molecules are produced here  Golgi Apparatus: special form of SMOOTH ER, complex molecules that are made by simple molecules are assembled here. It produce LYSOSOME which breakdown non-need substances in the cell  Cytoskeleton: insoluble strands of proteins, matrix, backbone of the neuron. It made up of three proteins strands. The most thick is MICROTUBULE. o Microtubule: perform a movement called anterograde axoplasmic transport: a way that needed items from the cytoplasm can be reached to the entire length of axon. o Kinesin walk down the length of microtubule and bring things to axon. this process need ATP o Dynesin do the reverse of Kinesinfrom terminals to some. This is called retrograde axoplasmic transport. o Anterograde is 2x faster than retrograde - Supporting Cells: neuron consist ½ the volume of the CNS, rest are supporting cells  Glia: surround neurons and hold them in place, control their supply of nutrients, exchange messages with other neurons, destroy died neuron. o Three type of Glia cells  Astrocytes: star shape  Provide physical support to the neuron  Clean up debris within the brain  phagocytosis  Produce chemical that neuron need  Control the chemical composition of fluid around neuron  Provide nutrients to neurons. Somatic and dendritic membrane are surrounded by astrocytes: take nutrients from the capillaries, and take off wastes of neurons  Astrocyte receive glucose from the capillaries and break it down into LACTATE release lactate in ESF neuron take the LACTATE  transport to Mitochondria  use for energy  When neuron metabolic rate is high, use glycogen stored by astrocyte: glycogen  glucose  lactate  Act as nerve glue  Isolate the synapse and limit the dispersion of the neurotransmitters  Oligodendrocytes: produce myelin sheath which is 80% lipid and 20% proteins. They also support the unmylinated axons Multiple sclerosis can destroy myelin by activating the autoimmune system.  Sheath formed is not continuous but segmented with a little segment of uncoated axon in btw node of RANVIER. AP jump from node to node  Microglia: smallest of the glia cell, act as phagocyte and breakdown dead neuron it is the IMMUNE system of the BRAIN - Schwann cells: myelin sheath in the peripheral nerves and support unmylinated axons  Difference from oligodendrocytes: Oli has several processes wrap around several axons. In Schwann cell, one cell provide myelin for one whole axon.  Damage myelin in PNS, it can regrow back. If damage myelin in CNS, it cannot. o Axon has 2 modes of regrow: st  1 : axon elongate and reach the target  2nd : when reaching the target, axon stops elongate and give rise to terminals. o Astrocyte produce scar tissue stop regrow of axon and if no scar tissue, axons in CNS will start with the 2 ndmode, not st the 1 one. So, axon regrow in PNS and CNS differ in terms of the supporting cells not the axon itself. o Immune system in CNS attack OLIGODENDROCYTES only. Blood-Brain Barrier:  protect brain from the outside environment,  semi-permeable to certain substances  LACK of gap junction that allow direct exchange from capillary and CNS  Maintain a balance in brain fluid and this balance is very important for messages transmission. Disruption of fluid balance = disruption of fluid transmission. Communication within a neuron - EX: holding a hot pot. Excitatory neurons send the info of dropping the pot, but inhibitory neuron send the info of holding it finally, we hold the pot, because the AP generated by the inhibitory neurons are stronger. Measuring Electrical Potentials of axons: performed with a squid axon - take a squid axon, put in sea water - insert an electrode in sea water - insert a microelectrode in axon - we measure the membrane potential with oscilloscope: -70mV - put another microelectrode in axon, send an electrical impulse - we measure the AP - when membrane potential return to normal, it overshot, and become hyperpolarized Membrane Potential: this electrical charge is a balance btw diffusion and electrostatic pressure - Diffusion  molecules diffuse from high concentration to low concentration - Electrostatic pressure  cation attract anion and cation - A- and K+ are found in the ICF (inside the cell)  A-: unable to pass through the membrane of axon, contribute to the resting membrane potential.  K+: diffusion wants K+ to flow to ESF, but electrostatic force keep K+ inside the cells - Cl- and Na+ are found in the ECF (outside the cell)  Cl-: diffusion want Cl- go inside the cell, but electrostatic force keep it in ECF  Na+: both diffusion and electrostatic force want Na+ to go into ICF, but sodium-potassium keep Na+ concentration in ESF. Pump 3 Na+ out and 2K+ in each time. This require energy. Membrane is more permeable to K+ than Na+. AP:  an AP will activate the Na+ channels  Na+ merge into the cells  This unbalance of electrical charge cause K+ channels open and leave the cell  Na+ channels close, no more Na+ come in  K+ channels still open, more K+ leave the cells to get back to - 70mV  K+ channels close, Na+ channels reset this correspond the overshot of membrane potential ( K+ is driven out by diffusion and electrostatic force) - those channels are voltage-dependent - firing rate control the strength of the muscle contraction. - mylinated axons come into contact with ESF only at node de RANVIER - AP jump from node to node= saltatory conduction - when AP propagate down the axon, it get smaller and smaller, this is called DECREMENT conduction, but it is still enough to trigger AP - in unmylinated axon, AP remain the same and propagate down. - myelin and large axon=fast conduction Communication btw Neurons - a chemical that attaches to a binding site is called a ligand. Neurotransmitters are natural ligand, and produced/released by neurons Structure of Synapse - synapse can be axodendritic, axosomatic, axoaxonic - synaptic vesicles are found near the membrane, in the release zone - type of vesicles:  small synaptic vesicles: produced in Golgi apparatus in the soma then transported to terminal by FAST axoplasmic transport or it could by produce in the terminals by using recycled material.  Large synaptic vesicles: only produced in the soma and transported through by the slow axoplasmic transport - the postsynaptic membrane are dense and thick than elsewhere because it has receptors to detect neurotransmitters Release of Neurotransmitters - AP opens Ca channels - Ca enter the cell - entry of Ca cause the fusion pore btw synaptic vesicle and membrane open - neurotransmitters are then released - Ca entry is critical, if we only have AP but no Ca, neurotransmitters will not be released. - three distinct pools of synaptic vesicles  1. Released-ready: ducked against the inside of the presynaptic membrane, ready to release their content. <1% than total number of vesicles at terminals  2. Recycling pool: 10-15%  3. Rest are reserve pool. - The recycling process for 1 is <1sec, for 2
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